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Negative Energy Balance Induced by Exercise or Diet: Effects on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Liver Fat

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
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Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12040891
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 14 March 2020 / Accepted: 17 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
The indisputable association between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and cardiometabolic risk makes it a primary target for lifestyle-based strategies designed to prevent or manage health risk. Substantive evidence also confirms that liver fat (LF) is positively associated with increased health risk and that reduction is associated with an improved metabolic profile. The independent associations between reductions in VAT, LF, and cardiometabolic risk is less clear. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence indicating whether a negative energy balance induced by either an increase in energy expenditure (aerobic exercise) or a decrease in energy intake (hypocaloric diet) are effective strategies for reducing both VAT and LF. Consideration will be given to whether a dose-response relationship exists between the negative energy balance induced by exercise or diet and reduction in either VAT or LF. We conclude with recommendations that will help fill gaps in knowledge with respect to lifestyle-based strategies designed to reduce VAT and LF. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise; abdominal obesity; energy balance; caloric restriction; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; physical activity exercise; abdominal obesity; energy balance; caloric restriction; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; physical activity
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Ross, R.; Soni, S.; Houle, S. Negative Energy Balance Induced by Exercise or Diet: Effects on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Liver Fat. Nutrients 2020, 12, 891.

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