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Discussion

Inconsistency in the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine in Athletes Who Regularly Consume Caffeine: Is It Due to the Disparity in the Criteria That Defines Habitual Caffeine Intake?

1
Institute of Sport Sciences, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, 40-065 Katowice; Poland
2
Centre for Sport Studies, Rey Juan Carlos University, 28942 Fuenlabrada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041087
Received: 1 April 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Strategies for Improved Anaerobic Performance)
Caffeine is the most popular psychoactive substance in the world, and data suggests that it is widely used by athletes before competition to enhance physical and mental performance. The high number of athletes that regularly use caffeine suggests the need to investigate the effect of acute caffeine ingestion in athletes habituated to caffeine. However, most of the studies supporting this claim have used samples of athletes who do not consume caffeine on a regular basis, and with caffeine intake withdrawal prior to the experiments. A search through 19 databases conducted on habitual caffeine users was performed. The results of the studies regarding the ergogenic effect of caffeine in naïve vs. habitual caffeine consumers are contradictory. The diversity of results are likely associated with the use of different thresholds to categorize individuals as naïve or high caffeine consumers. There are no valid and standardized methods to accurately estimate the amount of caffeine ingested per day in athletes. We proposed a classification of athletes that habitually consume caffeine by using dietary questionnaires, and ultimately, to reduce the likelihood of discrepancies caused by the improper qualification of daily caffeine intake in studies directed at the assessment of acute caffeine intake in habitual caffeine consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: classification; habituation; caffeine users; daily consumption; ergogenic aids classification; habituation; caffeine users; daily consumption; ergogenic aids
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MDPI and ACS Style

Filip, A.; Wilk, M.; Krzysztofik, M.; Del Coso, J. Inconsistency in the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine in Athletes Who Regularly Consume Caffeine: Is It Due to the Disparity in the Criteria That Defines Habitual Caffeine Intake? Nutrients 2020, 12, 1087. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041087

AMA Style

Filip A, Wilk M, Krzysztofik M, Del Coso J. Inconsistency in the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine in Athletes Who Regularly Consume Caffeine: Is It Due to the Disparity in the Criteria That Defines Habitual Caffeine Intake? Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1087. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041087

Chicago/Turabian Style

Filip, Aleksandra; Wilk, Michal; Krzysztofik, Michal; Del Coso, Juan. 2020. "Inconsistency in the Ergogenic Effect of Caffeine in Athletes Who Regularly Consume Caffeine: Is It Due to the Disparity in the Criteria That Defines Habitual Caffeine Intake?" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1087. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041087

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