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Article

Validation and Reliability of the Alzheimer’s Disease-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Food Frequency Questionnaire

1
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA 6027, Australia
2
Australian Alzheimer’s Research Foundation, Sarich Neuroscience Research Institute, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia
3
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Macquarie Park, NSW 2109, Australia
4
School of Psychological Science, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This work formed part of Samantha Gardener’s PhD thesis.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3605; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123605
Received: 26 October 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 19 November 2020 / Published: 24 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Aging Brain)
Accuracy in measuring intake of dietary constituents is an important issue in studies reporting the associations between diet and chronic diseases. We modified a Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to include foods of interest in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) research. The aim of the current study was to determine the reliability and validity of the AD-CSIROFFQ in 148 cognitively normal older adults. The AD-CSIROFFQ was completed before and after completion of a four-day weighed food record. Of the 508 food and beverage items reported, 309 had sufficient consumption levels for analysis of reliability. Of the 309 items, over 78% were significantly correlated between the two questionnaire administrations (Spearman’s rank correlations). We used two additional methods to assess absolute nutrient intake agreement between the AD-CSIROFFQ and the weighed food records (Pearson’s correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots) and quintile rankings to measure group level agreement. The adequate correlations observed between questionnaire responses suggest that the AD-CSIROFFQ is reliable. All nutrient intakes were acceptable for ranking of individuals on a group level, whilst the agreement levels with respect to the weighed food records for 11 of the 46 nutrients show validity in terms of their individual level absolute intake. The AD-CSIROFFQ makes an important contribution to the tools available for assessing usual dietary intake in groups of older adults with respect to AD research. View Full-Text
Keywords: validation; food frequency questionnaire; diet; Alzheimer’s disease; Australia; FFQ; weighed food record; reliability validation; food frequency questionnaire; diet; Alzheimer’s disease; Australia; FFQ; weighed food record; reliability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gardener, S.L.; Lyons-Wall, P.; Martins, R.N.; Rainey-Smith, S.R. Validation and Reliability of the Alzheimer’s Disease-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3605. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123605

AMA Style

Gardener SL, Lyons-Wall P, Martins RN, Rainey-Smith SR. Validation and Reliability of the Alzheimer’s Disease-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Food Frequency Questionnaire. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3605. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123605

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gardener, Samantha L., Philippa Lyons-Wall, Ralph N. Martins, and Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith 2020. "Validation and Reliability of the Alzheimer’s Disease-Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Food Frequency Questionnaire" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3605. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123605

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