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Influence of Diabetes during Pregnancy on Human Milk Composition

Complex Structure Neonatology Unit, Department of Public Health and Paediatric, University of Turin, 10100 Turin, Italy
Department of Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Health, C. Arrigo Children’s Hospital, 15121 Alessandria, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 185;
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition for Gestational Diabetes)
Human milk (HM) is a unique nourishment believed to contain biological factors contributing to both short and long-term benefits. Considering that a mother’s own milk is often considered the first choice for nutrition of neonates, an aspect of increased interest is the possible effect of diabetes on the mammary gland and therefore on breast milk composition. This article aims to review the published literature on this topic, and to offer additional insights on the role of this disease on the composition of HM. This review was performed by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 50 articles were selected, focused specifically on one of the two types of diabetes: gestational diabetes mellitus (21 studies) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (8 studies). Overall, the findings from the literature suggest that diabetes can alter the composition of HM. Nevertheless, the studies in this field are scarce, and the related protocols present some limitations, e.g., evaluating the variability of just a few specific milk biochemical markers in association with this syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; breastfeeding; gestational diabetes mellitus; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; preterm newborn human milk; breastfeeding; gestational diabetes mellitus; insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; preterm newborn
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peila, C.; Gazzolo, D.; Bertino, E.; Cresi, F.; Coscia, A. Influence of Diabetes during Pregnancy on Human Milk Composition. Nutrients 2020, 12, 185.

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