Probiotic Ingestion, Obesity, and Metabolic-Related Disorders: Results from NHANES, 1999–2014
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar Univesrsitário São João, 4200 Porto, Portugal
CINTESIS—Centre for Health Technologies and Information Systems Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200 Porto, Portugal
Department of Surgery and Physiology, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200 Porto, Portugal
Health Information and Decision Sciences Department, Faculty of Medicine, Porto University, 4200 Porto, Portugal
I3S—Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200 Porto, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071482
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Microbiota and Noncommunicable Diseases)
Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been recognized as having key importance in obesity- and metabolic-related diseases. Although there is increasing evidence of the potential benefits induced by probiotics in metabolic disturbances, there is a lack of large cross-sectional studies to assess population-based prevalence of probiotic intake and metabolic diseases. Our aim was to evaluate the association of probiotic ingestion with obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A cross-sectional study was designed using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999–2014. Probiotic ingestion was considered when a subject reported consumption of yogurt or a probiotic supplement during the 24-h dietary recall or during the Dietary Supplement Use 30-Day questionnaire. We included 38,802 adults and 13.1% reported probiotic ingestion. The prevalence of obesity and hypertension was lower in the probiotic group (obesity-adjusted Odds Ratio (OR): 0.84, 95% CI 0.76–0.92, p < 0.001; hypertension-adjusted OR: 0.79, 95% CI 0.71–0.88, p < 0.001). Accordingly, even after analytic adjustments, body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in the probiotic group, as were systolic and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was significantly higher in the probiotic group for the adjusted model. In this large-scale study, ingestion of probiotic supplements or yogurt was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity and hypertension.