Enhancing Immunomodulatory Function of Red Ginseng Through Fermentation Using Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. lactis LT 19-2
AbstractRemoval of sugar moieties from ginsenosides has been proposed to increase their biological effects in various disease models. In order to identify strains that can increase aglycone contents, we performed a screening using bacteria isolated from the feces of infants focusing on acid tolerance and β-glucosidase activity. We isolated 565 bacteria and selected Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LT 19-2 (LT 19-2), which exhibited the highest β-glucosidase activity with strong acid tolerance. As red ginseng (RG) has been known to exert immunomodulatory functions, we fermented RG using LT 19-2 (FRG) and investigated whether this could alter the aglycone profile of ginsenosides and improve its immunomodulatory effect. FRG increased macrophage activity more potently compared to RG, demonstrated by higher TNF-α and IL-6 production. More importantly, the FRG treatment stimulated the proliferation of mouse splenocytes and increased TNF-α levels in bone marrow-derived macrophages, confirming that the enhanced immunomodulatory function can be recapitulated in primary immune cells. Examination of the molecular mechanism revealed that F-RG could induce phosphorylations of ERK, p38, JNK, and NF-κB. Analysis of the ginsenoside composition showed a decrease in Rb1, Re, Rc, and Rb3, accompanied by an increase in Rd, Rh1, F2, and Rg3, the corresponding aglycone metabolites, in FRG compared to RG. Collectively, LT 19-2 maybe used as a probiotic strain to improve the bioactivity of functional foods through modifying the aglycone/glycoside profile. View Full-Text
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Kim, J.H.; Doo, E.-H.; Jeong, M.; Kim, S.; Lee, Y.-Y.; Yang, J.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, K.W.; Huh, C.S.; Byun, S. Enhancing Immunomodulatory Function of Red Ginseng Through Fermentation Using Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. lactis LT 19-2. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1481.
Kim JH, Doo E-H, Jeong M, Kim S, Lee Y-Y, Yang J, Lee JS, Kim JH, Lee KW, Huh CS, Byun S. Enhancing Immunomodulatory Function of Red Ginseng Through Fermentation Using Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. lactis LT 19-2. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7):1481.Chicago/Turabian Style
Kim, Jae H.; Doo, Eun-Hee; Jeong, Minju; Kim, Seungil; Lee, Yun-Yeol; Yang, Jaesik; Lee, Ji S.; Kim, Jong H.; Lee, Ki W.; Huh, Chul S.; Byun, Sanguine. 2019. "Enhancing Immunomodulatory Function of Red Ginseng Through Fermentation Using Bifidobacterium animalis Subsp. lactis LT 19-2." Nutrients 11, no. 7: 1481.
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