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Article

Flavanol Bioavailability in Two Cocoa Products with Different Phenolic Content. A Comparative Study in Humans

Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), José Antonio Novais 10, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071441
Received: 18 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cocoa, Chocolate and Human Health)
Cocoa has beneficial health effects partly due to its high flavanol content. This study was aimed at assessing the absorption and metabolism of polyphenols in two soluble cocoa products: a conventional (CC) and a flavanol-rich product (CC-PP). A crossover, randomized, blind study was performed in 13 healthy men and women. On two different days, after an overnight fast, volunteers consumed one serving of CC (15 g) or CC-PP (25 g) in 200 mL of semi-skimmed milk containing 19.80 mg and 68.25 mg of flavanols, respectively. Blood and urine samples were taken, before and after CC and CC-PP consumption, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QToF-MS). Up to 10 and 30 metabolites were identified in plasma and urine, respectively. Phase II derivatives of epicatechin were identified with kinetics compatible with small intestine absorption, although the most abundant groups of metabolites were phase II derivatives of phenyl-γ-valerolactone and phenylvaleric acid, formed at colonic level. 5-(4′-Hydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactone-sulfate could be a sensitive biomarker of cocoa flavanol intake. CC and CC-PP flavanols showed a dose-dependent absorption with a recovery of 35%. In conclusion, cocoa flavanols are moderately bioavailable and extensively metabolized, mainly by the colonic microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavanols; soluble cocoa products; bioavailability; human; plasma nutrikinetics; liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS); colonic bacteria flavanols; soluble cocoa products; bioavailability; human; plasma nutrikinetics; liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QToF-MS); colonic bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gómez-Juaristi, M.; Sarria, B.; Martínez-López, S.; Bravo Clemente, L.; Mateos, R. Flavanol Bioavailability in Two Cocoa Products with Different Phenolic Content. A Comparative Study in Humans. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071441

AMA Style

Gómez-Juaristi M, Sarria B, Martínez-López S, Bravo Clemente L, Mateos R. Flavanol Bioavailability in Two Cocoa Products with Different Phenolic Content. A Comparative Study in Humans. Nutrients. 2019; 11(7):1441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071441

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gómez-Juaristi, Miren, Beatriz Sarria, Sara Martínez-López, Laura Bravo Clemente, and Raquel Mateos. 2019. "Flavanol Bioavailability in Two Cocoa Products with Different Phenolic Content. A Comparative Study in Humans" Nutrients 11, no. 7: 1441. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071441

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