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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium in a Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults

1
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3220, Australia
2
The George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Camperdown, NSW 2050, Australia
3
The George Institute for Global Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QX, UK
4
Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong 3220, Australia
5
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Public Health, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
6
Department of Health and Human Services, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 2996; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122996
Received: 1 November 2019 / Revised: 25 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 6 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Potassium and Human Health)
A diet rich in potassium is important to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed potassium intake; food sources of potassium (including NOVA level of processing, purchase origin of these foods); and sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) in a cross-section of Australian adults. Data collection included 24-h urines (n = 338) and a 24-h diet recall (subsample n = 142). The mean (SD) age of participants was 41.2 (13.9) years and 56% were females. Mean potassium (95%CI) 24-h urinary excretion was 76.8 (73.0–80.5) mmol/day compared to 92.9 (86.6–99.1) by 24-h diet recall. Na:K was 1.9 (1.8–2.0) from the urine excretion and 1.4 (1.2–1.7) from diet recall. Foods contributing most to potassium were potatoes (8%), dairy milk (6%), dishes where cereal is the main ingredient (6%) and coffee/coffee substitutes (5%). Over half of potassium (56%) came from minimally processed foods, with 22% from processed and 22% from ultraprocessed foods. Almost two-thirds of potassium consumed was from foods purchased from food stores (58%), then food service sector (15%), and fresh food markets (13%). Overall, potassium levels were lower than recommended to reduce chronic disease risk. Multifaceted efforts are required for population-wide intervention—aimed at increasing fruit, vegetable, and other key sources of potassium intake; reducing consumption of processed foods; and working in supermarket/food service sector settings to improve the healthiness of foods available. View Full-Text
Keywords: potassium consumption; potassium excretion; dietary assessment; urinary excretion; cardiovascular disease prevention; adults; purchasing origin; population prevention potassium consumption; potassium excretion; dietary assessment; urinary excretion; cardiovascular disease prevention; adults; purchasing origin; population prevention
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bolton, K.A.; Trieu, K.; Woodward, M.; Nowson, C.; Webster, J.; Dunford, E.K.; Bolam, B.; Grimes, C. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium in a Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2996. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122996

AMA Style

Bolton KA, Trieu K, Woodward M, Nowson C, Webster J, Dunford EK, Bolam B, Grimes C. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium in a Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults. Nutrients. 2019; 11(12):2996. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122996

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bolton, Kristy A.; Trieu, Kathy; Woodward, Mark; Nowson, Caryl; Webster, Jacqui; Dunford, Elizabeth K.; Bolam, Bruce; Grimes, Carley. 2019. "Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium in a Cross-Sectional Study of Australian Adults" Nutrients 11, no. 12: 2996. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11122996

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