Background. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed stimulants worldwide. It is a well-recognized antagonist of adenosine and a potential cause of false-negative functional measurements during vasodilator myocardial perfusion. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence regarding the effects of caffeine intake on functional measurements of myocardial perfusion in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched using a predefined electronic search strategy. Participants—healthy subjects or patients with known or suspected CAD. Comparisons—recent caffeine intake versus no caffeine intake. Outcomes—measurements of functional myocardial perfusion. Study design—observational. Fourteen studies were deemed eligible for this systematic review. There was a wide range of variability in study design with varying imaging modalities, vasodilator agents, serum concentrations of caffeine, and primary outcome measurements. The available data indicate a significant influence of recent caffeine intake on cardiac perfusion measurements during adenosine and dipyridamole induced hyperemia. These effects have the potential to affect the clinical decision making by re-classification to different risk-categories.
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