Next Article in Journal
Impact of Coffee, Wine, and Chocolate Consumption on Cognitive Outcome and MRI Parameters in Old Age
Next Article in Special Issue
Serum Carotenoids Reveal Poor Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Schoolchildren in Burkina Faso
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation on Recovery Following Acute Eccentric Exercise
Previous Article in Special Issue
Astaxanthin Prevents Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease by Modulating Mouse Gut Microbiota
Open AccessArticle

Reduced Carotenoid and Retinoid Concentrations and Altered Lycopene Isomer Ratio in Plasma of Atopic Dermatitis Patients

1
Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
3
School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
4
Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
5
Paprika Bioanalytics BT, 4002 Debrecen, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2018, 10(10), 1390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10101390
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 22 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids and Human Health)
Carotenoids and retinoids are known to alter the allergic response with important physiological roles in the skin and the immune system. In the human organism various carotenoids are present, some of which are retinoid precursors. The bioactive derivatives of these retinoids are the retinoic acids, which can potently activate nuclear hormone receptors such as the retinoic acid receptor and the retinoid X receptor. In this study, we aimed to assess how plasma carotenoid and retinoid concentrations along with the ratio of their isomers are altered in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients (n = 20) compared to healthy volunteers (HV, n = 20). The study indicated that plasma levels of the carotenoids lutein (HV 198 ± 14 ng/mL, AD 158 ± 12 ng/mL, p = 0.02; all values in mean ± SEM), zeaxanthin (HV 349 ± 30 ng/mL, AD 236 ± 18 ng/mL, p ≤ 0.01), as well as the retinoids retinol (HV 216 ± 20 ng/mL, AD 167 ± 17 ng/mL, p = 0.04) and all-trans-retinoic acid (HV 1.1 ± 0.1 ng/mL, AD 0.7 ± 0.1 ng/mL, p = 0.04) were significantly lower in the AD-patients, while lycopene isomers, α-carotene, and β-carotene levels were comparable to that determined in the healthy volunteers. In addition, the ratios of 13-cis- vs. all-trans-lycopene (HV 0.31 ± 0.01, AD 0.45 ± 0.07, p = 0.03) as well as 13-cis- vs. all-trans-retinoic acid (HV 1.4 ± 0.2, AD 2.6 ± 0.6, p = 0.03) were increased in the plasma of AD-patients indicating an AD-specific 13-cis-isomerisation. A positive correlation with SCORAD was calculated with 13-cis- vs. all-trans-lycopene ratio (r = 0.40, p = 0.01), while a negative correlation was observed with zeaxanthin plasma levels (r = −0.42, p = 0.01). Based on our results, we conclude that in the plasma of AD-patients various carotenoids and retinoids are present at lower concentrations, while the ratio of selected lycopene isomers also differed in the AD-patient group. An increase in plasma isomers of both lycopene and retinoic acid may cause an altered activation of nuclear hormone receptor signaling pathways and thus may be partly responsible for the AD-phenotype. View Full-Text
Keywords: lycopene; carotene; retinoic acid; retinoid; vitamin A; RAR; RXR lycopene; carotene; retinoic acid; retinoid; vitamin A; RAR; RXR
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lucas, R.; Mihály, J.; Lowe, G.M.; Graham, D.L.; Szklenar, M.; Szegedi, A.; Töröcsik, D.; Rühl, R. Reduced Carotenoid and Retinoid Concentrations and Altered Lycopene Isomer Ratio in Plasma of Atopic Dermatitis Patients. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1390.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop