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Article

Geodetic SAR for Height System Unification and Sea Level Research—Observation Concept and Preliminary Results in the Baltic Sea

1
Astronomical and Physical Geodesy, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 80333 Munich, Germany
2
Lantmäteriet (LM), Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, 80182 Gävle, Sweden
3
German Geodetic Research Institute, Technical University of Munich (TUM), 80333 Munich, Germany
4
School of Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology (TUT), 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
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German Aerospace Center (DLR), Remote Sensing Technology, 82234 Weßling, Germany
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Centrum Badań Kosmicznych, Polskiej Akademii Nauk (CBK-PAN), 00-716 Warsaw, Poland
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Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI), 02430 Masala, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(22), 3747; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12223747
Received: 24 September 2020 / Revised: 4 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 14 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geodesy for Gravity and Height Systems)
Traditionally, sea level is observed at tide gauge stations, which usually also serve as height reference stations for national leveling networks and therefore define a height system of a country. One of the main deficiencies to use tide gauge data for geodetic sea level research and height systems unification is that only a few stations are connected to the geometric network of a country by operating permanent GNSS receivers next to the tide gauge. As a new observation technique, absolute positioning by SAR using active transponders on ground can fill this gap by systematically observing time series of geometric heights at tide gauge stations. By additionally knowing the tide gauge geoid heights in a global height reference frame, one can finally obtain absolute sea level heights at each tide gauge. With this information the impact of climate change on the sea level can be quantified in an absolute manner and height systems can be connected across the oceans. First results from applying this technique at selected tide gauges at the Baltic coasts are promising but also exhibit some problems related to the new technique. The paper presents the concept of using the new observation type in an integrated sea level observing system and provides some early results for SAR positioning in the Baltic sea area. View Full-Text
Keywords: height system unification; sea level; SAR; GNSS; tide gauge; geoid; Sentinel-1; GOCE height system unification; sea level; SAR; GNSS; tide gauge; geoid; Sentinel-1; GOCE
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gruber, T.; Ågren, J.; Angermann, D.; Ellmann, A.; Engfeldt, A.; Gisinger, C.; Jaworski, L.; Marila, S.; Nastula, J.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Oikonomidou, X.; Poutanen, M.; Saari, T.; Schlaak, M.; Światek, A.; Varbla, S.; Zdunek, R. Geodetic SAR for Height System Unification and Sea Level Research—Observation Concept and Preliminary Results in the Baltic Sea. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3747. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12223747

AMA Style

Gruber T, Ågren J, Angermann D, Ellmann A, Engfeldt A, Gisinger C, Jaworski L, Marila S, Nastula J, Nilfouroushan F, Oikonomidou X, Poutanen M, Saari T, Schlaak M, Światek A, Varbla S, Zdunek R. Geodetic SAR for Height System Unification and Sea Level Research—Observation Concept and Preliminary Results in the Baltic Sea. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(22):3747. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12223747

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gruber, Thomas, Jonas Ågren, Detlef Angermann, Artu Ellmann, Andreas Engfeldt, Christoph Gisinger, Leszek Jaworski, Simo Marila, Jolanta Nastula, Faramarz Nilfouroushan, Xanthi Oikonomidou, Markku Poutanen, Timo Saari, Marius Schlaak, Anna Światek, Sander Varbla, and Ryszard Zdunek. 2020. "Geodetic SAR for Height System Unification and Sea Level Research—Observation Concept and Preliminary Results in the Baltic Sea" Remote Sensing 12, no. 22: 3747. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12223747

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