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Open AccessArticle

Comparing “Leaf-to-Root”, “Nose-to-Tail” and Other Efficient Food Utilization Options from a Consumer Perspective

Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, University of Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2019, 11(17), 4779;
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 23 August 2019 / Accepted: 29 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marketing of Sustainable Food and Drink)
The efficient use of natural raw materials is a key element of sustainable development and is also gaining importance in the food sector. Consumers are increasingly realizing that food is too valuable to be used only partially. However, consumer acceptance is an important precondition for establishing efficient food utilization options. A total of 470 German consumers were surveyed through an online-questionnaire where they had to evaluate three options each for the efficient use of plant-based foods as well as animal-based foods with respect to eight different criteria. The results show that the six options differed significantly regarding consumer acceptance. The efficient use of plant-based foods (especially non-standard fruits/vegetables and the “leaf-to-root” principle) was more accepted than the efficient utilization of animal-based foods. Furthermore, it can be seen that options using the by-products in a natural form were considered more acceptable than those which subject the by-products to some form of processing. These results provide an insight into the views of consumers on food waste reduction strategies, which are frequently debated in the sustainability discussion. View Full-Text
Keywords: efficient utilization; food consumption; consumer research; food by-products efficient utilization; food consumption; consumer research; food by-products
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Nitzko, S.; Spiller, A. Comparing “Leaf-to-Root”, “Nose-to-Tail” and Other Efficient Food Utilization Options from a Consumer Perspective. Sustainability 2019, 11, 4779.

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