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Sustainability 2018, 10(7), 2426; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10072426

Eutrophication, Research and Management History of the Shallow Ypacaraí Lake (Paraguay)

1
Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering (DICAM), University of Trento (UniTN), 38123 Trento, Italy
2
Department of Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), 12587 Berlin, Germany
3
Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin (FUB), 14195 Berlin, Germany
4
Centre for Appropriate Technology (CTA), Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FCYT), “Nuestra Señora de la Asunción” Catholic University (UCNSA), 1366 Asunción, Paraguay
5
Faculty of Engineering, National University of Asunción (FIUNA), 2169 San Lorenzo, Paraguay
6
Thetis S.p.A., 30122 Venice, Italy
7
INYMA Consult S.R.L., 1580 Asunción, Paraguay
8
Multidisciplinary Centre for Technological Investigations (CEMIT), General Directorate of Scientific and Technological Research (DGICT), National University of Asunción (UNA), 2169 San Lorenzo, Paraguay
9
Department of Fishing and Aquaculture, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences (FCV), National University of Asunción (UNA), 2169 San Lorenzo, Paraguay
10
Department of Botany, Faculty of Chemical Sciences (FCQ), National University of Asunción (UNA), 2169 San Lorenzo, Paraguay
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Eutrophication and Sustainable Management of Water)
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Abstract

Ypacaraí Lake is the most renowned lake in landlocked Paraguay and a major source of drinking and irrigation water for neighbouring towns. Beyond its socioeconomic and cultural significance, it has great ecological importance, supporting a rich biodiversity. Rapid growth of human presence and activities within its basin has led to its environmental degradation, a heartfelt matter of high political concern that compels intervention. Here, by reconstructing the history of scientific and management-oriented research on this system, we provide a comprehensive assessment of current knowledge and practice to which we contribute our recent, novel findings. An upward trend in total phosphorus concentration confirms ongoing eutrophication of an already eutrophic system, evidenced by consistently high values of trophic state indices. Downward trends in water transparency and chlorophyll-a concentration support the hypothesis that primary production in this lake is fundamentally light limited. Statistical and other analyses suggest high sensitivity of the system to hydraulic, hydro-morphological and hydro-meteorological alterations arising, respectively, from engineering interventions, land use and climate change. By discussing knowledge gaps, opportunities for research and challenges for management and restoration, we argue that this case is of high scientific value and that its study can advance theoretical understanding of shallow subtropical lakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: turbid lake; subtropical lake; alternative stable states; limnological study; historical reconstruction; cyanobacterial bloom; light limitation; trend analysis; correlation analysis; PCA turbid lake; subtropical lake; alternative stable states; limnological study; historical reconstruction; cyanobacterial bloom; light limitation; trend analysis; correlation analysis; PCA
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López Moreira M., G.A.; Hinegk, L.; Salvadore, A.; Zolezzi, G.; Hölker, F.; Monte Domecq S., R.A.; Bocci, M.; Carrer, S.; De Nat, L.; Escribá, J.; Escribá, C.; Benítez, G.A.; Ávalos, C.R.; Peralta, I.; Insaurralde, M.; Mereles, F.; Sekatcheff, J.M.; Wehrle, A.; Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Facetti, J.F.; Toffolon, M. Eutrophication, Research and Management History of the Shallow Ypacaraí Lake (Paraguay). Sustainability 2018, 10, 2426.

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