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Audiol. Res., Volume 12, Issue 4 (August 2022) – 8 articles

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Review
Dissociation between Caloric and Video Head Impulse Tests in Dizziness Clinics
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 423-432; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040043 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 288
Abstract
Vestibular assessment tests such as the video head impulse test (vHIT) for the horizontal semicircular canal, and caloric test (Cal), both evaluate horizontal canal function. One would assume that the outcomes for these tests should lead to concordant results, yet several studies have [...] Read more.
Vestibular assessment tests such as the video head impulse test (vHIT) for the horizontal semicircular canal, and caloric test (Cal), both evaluate horizontal canal function. One would assume that the outcomes for these tests should lead to concordant results, yet several studies have suggested that dissociation can occur in certain pathological conditions. As this topic remains inconclusive, this review aims to analyze the scientific evidence regarding the patterns of hypofunction observed in vHIT and Cal in different otoneurological diseases. A comprehensive review of the literature regarding dissociation between these tests in common neurotological diseases was carried out. Articles were analyzed when data for vHIT and Cal were described in a way that it was possible to calculate discordance rates; both retrospective and prospective studies were analyzed. In this review, the discordance rates were as follows: 56% in Ménière’s disease, 51.5% in vestibular migraine, 37.2% in vestibular schwannoma, and 20.8% in vestibular neuritis. These results highlight the benefit of using both Cal and vHIT, and that they are complementary tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges and Advances in Inner Ear Disorders)
Article
Cochlear Implant Evolving Indications: Our Outcomes in Adult Patients
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 414-422; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040042 - 07 Aug 2022
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Abstract
Background: The eligibility criteria for cochlear implantation are constantly evolving, following the continuous progress in technology, knowledge about cochlear implant (CI) fitting, and the possibility to preserve residual hearing. Appropriate attention should be given to asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) and single-side deafness (SSD) [...] Read more.
Background: The eligibility criteria for cochlear implantation are constantly evolving, following the continuous progress in technology, knowledge about cochlear implant (CI) fitting, and the possibility to preserve residual hearing. Appropriate attention should be given to asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) and single-side deafness (SSD) subjects. This study aimed to analyze cochlear implant indications and evaluate the longitudinal performance outcomes for patients with different kinds and degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. Methods: A total of 69 adult hearing loss CI recipients were included and divided into four subgroups according to our CI indication criteria. We performed objective and subjective measures, including speech perception analysis in silence and with background noise, comparing the outcomes obtained in the four groups. Results: After cochlear implant surgery, concerning the preimplantation daily listening condition, a significantly improved speech perception score in silence and noise was found in all four groups (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: CI could represent an efficient solution for patients with AHL and SSD classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cochlear Implantation)
Article
The Thomas More Lists: A Phonemically Balanced Dutch Monosyllabic Speech Audiometry Test
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 404-413; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040041 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Speech audiometry tests are a crucial tool in clinical care and research. In Dutch, the common practice is to use lists of monosyllabic words with a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) structure. However, there are relatively few lists, and they are short. Here, the goal is [...] Read more.
Speech audiometry tests are a crucial tool in clinical care and research. In Dutch, the common practice is to use lists of monosyllabic words with a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) structure. However, there are relatively few lists, and they are short. Here, the goal is to develop an adult speech audiometry test for Dutch (Flemish) consisting of phonemically balanced lists of 25 CVC words. The ISO 8253-3:2012 norm was followed. From a pool of 689 well-known words, an initial set of 26 lists was recorded by a female speaker. The lists were optimized for perceptual balance by means of two studies with young normal hearing listeners (N1 = 24, N2 = 32). The final corpus contains 16 phonetically and perceptually balanced lists. In a last study (N3 = 25), the reference speech recognition curves in quiet and in speech-shaped noise were determined. Reference speech recognition threshold and slope values for phoneme scoring are respectively 20.3 dBSPL in quiet (slope 5.2%/dB) and −7.7 dBSNR (7.5%/dB) in noise, similar to existing materials. The lists may be a useful addition to the existing audiometric tests. Full article
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Article
Control of Disabling Vertigo in Ménière’s Disease Following Cochlear Implantation without Labyrinthectomy
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 393-403; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040040 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 415
Abstract
Background: The placement of a cochlear implant (CI) can restore auditory function in the case of profound cochlear deafness, which may be due to Ménière’s disease (MD) or be associated with symptoms related to endolymphatic hydrops. The usual treatment of disabling vertigo in [...] Read more.
Background: The placement of a cochlear implant (CI) can restore auditory function in the case of profound cochlear deafness, which may be due to Ménière’s disease (MD) or be associated with symptoms related to endolymphatic hydrops. The usual treatment of disabling vertigo in MD is based on vestibular deafferentation by labyrinth ablation. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of the CI in the control of disabling vestibular manifestations in the case of MD unresponsive to medical treatments. Methods: A case series of five MD patients with disabling vestibular manifestations associated with profound hearing loss was included. A complete audio-vestibular evaluation was performed after CI positioning. Results: All patients reported clinical benefits after implant positioning: no vestibular crisis was reported after the surgery. The vHIT and the caloric test showed a normal function or a mild vestibular hypofunction. The auditory performances were comparable to those in the general implanted population. All patients reported subjective tinnitus reduction. Conclusions: To date, very few studies have reported vestibular outcomes in hydropic pathology on the implanted side; our results are encouraging. We can therefore confirm the efficacy and safety of the CI as a unique treatment for hearing loss, dizziness, and tinnitus in case of disabling cochlear hydrops, especially in those patients where the history of the disease requires preservation of the vestibular function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Cochlear Implantation)
Article
A Step towards Achieving Sustainable Otologic Surgery in Low-Resource Settings: A Cost Comparison between Shipping an Otologic versus Microscopic Surgical Setup
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 388-392; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040039 - 13 Jul 2022
Viewed by 385
Abstract
Background: The advancement of otologic surgery in low-resource settings has been limited by the cost and transport of surgical equipment. This study compared the transportation costs of an otologic microscopic surgical setup (MSS) versus an endoscopic surgical setup (ESS) in low- and low [...] Read more.
Background: The advancement of otologic surgery in low-resource settings has been limited by the cost and transport of surgical equipment. This study compared the transportation costs of an otologic microscopic surgical setup (MSS) versus an endoscopic surgical setup (ESS) in low- and low to middle-income countries (LMICs) for surgical teaching. Methods: Dimensions of microscopes, endoscopes and associated surgical instruments were used to calculate shipping costs from Minneapolis, MN, USA to Kenya, Haiti and Sri Lanka. Results: The average cost of internationally shipping the ESS is less than the MSS in Kenya (ESS: USD 1344.03; MSS: USD 20,947.00; p = 0.370), Haiti (ESS: USD 549.11; MSS: USD 1679.00; p < 0.05) and Sri Lanka (ESS: USD 945.38; MSS: USD 8490.57; p = 0.377). Freight shipping was required for the MSS while the ESS can be packed into an international checked bag for USD 35.00 USD. Discussion: The ESS has fewer logistical barriers than the MSS, making the endoscope a feasible option for surgical teaching in LMICs. Full article
Review
The Otoprotective Effect of Ear Cryotherapy: Systematic Review and Future Perspectives
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 377-387; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040038 - 05 Jul 2022
Viewed by 434
Abstract
This systematic review investigates ear cooling and cryotherapy in the prevention and treatment of inner ear damage and disease, within the context of animal models and clinical studies. A literature search was carried out in the databases Pubmed and Cochrane Library. Ten studies [...] Read more.
This systematic review investigates ear cooling and cryotherapy in the prevention and treatment of inner ear damage and disease, within the context of animal models and clinical studies. A literature search was carried out in the databases Pubmed and Cochrane Library. Ten studies were identified concerning the otoprotective properties of cryotherapy. Nine of these were rodent in vivo studies (mice, rats, gerbils, guinea pigs). One study involved human subjects and investigated cryotherapy in idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss. The studies were heterogeneous in their goals, methods, and the models used. Disorder models included ischemia and noise damage, ototoxicity (cisplatin and aminoglycoside), and CI-electrode insertion. All ten studies demonstrated significant cryotherapeutic otoprotection for their respective endpoints. No study revealed or expressly investigated otodestructive effects. While limited in number, all of the studies within the scope of the review demonstrated some degree of cryotherapeutic, otoprotective effect. These promising results support the conducting of further work to explore and refine the clinical applicability and impact of cryotherpeutics in otolaryngology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Research in Audiology)
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Article
Validation of the Maltese Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST)
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 357-376; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040037 - 26 Jun 2022
Viewed by 469
Abstract
The Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST) was developed to record the Speech Recognition Threshold (SRT) in children in quiet or with background noise. AAST is an interlingually valid and reliable standardised tool with speech material developed in several languages. The Maltese version of [...] Read more.
The Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST) was developed to record the Speech Recognition Threshold (SRT) in children in quiet or with background noise. AAST is an interlingually valid and reliable standardised tool with speech material developed in several languages. The Maltese version of the Adaptive Auditory Speech Test (AAST) was developed to examine the speech recognition skills of 208 children and 40 Maltese-speaking adults in quiet, noise and high frequency. The aims were to determine the norms in these three settings in adults and children aged 4 years and older. The Maltese version of AAST confirms an age dependent norm threshold with a significant improvement in threshold being observed as children grow older, similar to other AAST versions. This was evident across the three test settings. An approximate difference of 10 dB was also noted between 4-year-old and 10-year-old children in AAST in quiet. Thresholds of 10-year-olds and adults were similar in both the quiet and high frequency versions. Implications for post Universal Newborn Hearing Screening using these tools are addressed. Full article
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Article
Lateralization Pattern of the Weber Tuning Fork Test in Longstanding Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Implications for Cochlear Implantation
Audiol. Res. 2022, 12(4), 347-356; https://doi.org/10.3390/audiolres12040036 - 21 Jun 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The Weber tuning fork test is a standard otologic examination tool in patients with unilateral hearing loss. Sound should typically lateralize to the contralateral side in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The observation that the Weber test does not lateralize in some patients with [...] Read more.
The Weber tuning fork test is a standard otologic examination tool in patients with unilateral hearing loss. Sound should typically lateralize to the contralateral side in unilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The observation that the Weber test does not lateralize in some patients with longstanding unilateral deafness has been previously described but remains poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients with unilateral profound hearing loss (single-sided deafness or asymmetric hearing loss) for at least ten years. In this patient cohort, childhood-onset unilateral profound hearing loss was significantly associated with the lack of lateralization of the Weber tuning fork test (Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.05) and the absence of tinnitus in the affected ear (Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.001). The findings may imply a central adaptation process due to chronic unilateral auditory deprivation starting before the critical period of auditory maturation. This notion may partially explain the poor outcome of adult cochlear implantation in longstanding single-sided deafness. The findings may suggest a role for the Weber test as a simple, quick, and economical tool for screening poor cochlear implant candidates, thus potentially supporting the decision-making and counseling of patients with longstanding single-sided deafness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Research in Audiology)
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