Next Issue
Volume 4, April
Previous Issue
Volume 3, September
 
 
Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 4, Issue 1 (January 2012) – 25 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
323 KiB  
Article
A Cavitary Pneumonia Caused by Leptotrichia species in an Immunocompetent Patient
by Tze Shien Lo
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e24; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e24 - 10 Apr 2012
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Leptotrichia species (LS) is an anaerobic Gram negative bacillus in the Bacteroidaceae family and part of the normal human oral flora. It is rarely pathogenic, but occasionally causes diseases in immunocompromised hosts. I am reporting a case of cavitary pneumonia caused by LS [...] Read more.
Leptotrichia species (LS) is an anaerobic Gram negative bacillus in the Bacteroidaceae family and part of the normal human oral flora. It is rarely pathogenic, but occasionally causes diseases in immunocompromised hosts. I am reporting a case of cavitary pneumonia caused by LS in an immunocompetent host. Full article
307 KiB  
Case Report
Pediatric Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Osteomyelitis
by Sushant Srinivasan, Carl Miller, Nour Akhras and Alexander R. Blackwood
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e18; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e18 - 14 Mar 2012
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Pyogenic sacroiliitis for 1-2% of all cases of septic arthritis with less than 200 cases reported in the English literature since the beginning of the twentieth century. Cultures of joint fluid usually grow Staphylococcus aureus. Prognosis is excellent; however, diagnosis may be [...] Read more.
Pyogenic sacroiliitis for 1-2% of all cases of septic arthritis with less than 200 cases reported in the English literature since the beginning of the twentieth century. Cultures of joint fluid usually grow Staphylococcus aureus. Prognosis is excellent; however, diagnosis may be difficult due to rarity of disease and non-specific signs, symptoms, and physical findings. Magnetic resonance imaging has been found to be the most useful imaging modality in diagnosis. Most reported cases required prolonged antimicrobial therapy of six to nine weeks. Presented here are two children with pyogenic sacroiliitis managed at a tertiary-care, university hospital and review of the literature on this relatively rare diagnosis. Full article
69 KiB  
Brief Report
A Case of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Endocarditis Presenting as Quadriceps Myositis
by Angeline Reid, Katerina Liew, Peter Stride, Robert Horvath, Jonathan Hunter and Mostafa Seleem
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e14; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e14 - 14 Mar 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
An 80 year old female was admitted with an eight week history of fever associated with painful swelling of her right thigh, and a long history of poor dentition. Culture of blood stained fluid aspirated from the abscess grew Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) sensitive [...] Read more.
An 80 year old female was admitted with an eight week history of fever associated with painful swelling of her right thigh, and a long history of poor dentition. Culture of blood stained fluid aspirated from the abscess grew Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) sensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporins. Transoesophageal echocardiography indicated endocarditis. Four weeks treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone and appropriate dental care was followed by full recovery. Full article
365 KiB  
Article
A Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Outbreak Experience among Residents of a Long Term-Care Facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 Seasonal Flu Circulation
by Raouf M. Afifi, Sherif Omar and Ahmed El Raggal
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e23; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e23 - 13 Mar 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF months or years before the outbreak for several reasons, e.g. cerebral palsy, neurological deficits due to road traffic accidents with resultant handicap, chronic diseases associated with old age. An observational study was carried out to demonstrate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics (demographic factors, risk factors, and outcomes) associated with the outbreak in order to clarify which prevention and control measures had been taken and which recommendations were followed. During the period October 28 to November 11 2010, 21 LTCF residents were suspected to be clinically involved: fever ≥38ºC with influenza-like illness (ILI). Age ranged from 9-91 years (mean 46±24.13); 62% were males. Among them, 12 (57%) were influenza A (H1N1) positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). Mortality involved 2 (17%) of the A (H1N1) laboratory confirmed individuals. Implementation of the recommended infection control measures mitigated the transmission of infection to new individuals. The fulfillment of strict infection control measures could limit H1N1 infection among LTCFPMMH patients. Routine influenza, including specific H1N1 immunization of all LTCF residents together with their healthcare staff, should be mandatory in those settings serving immunocompromised patients. Full article
200 KiB  
Review
Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Its Effects on the Visual System
by Michael W. Stewart
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e25; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e25 - 08 Mar 2012
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
During the first 15 years of the AIDS epidemic patients experienced a high incidence of blindness due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and other severe ocular opportunistic infections. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy, introduced in 1996, dramatically decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis. Though CMV [...] Read more.
During the first 15 years of the AIDS epidemic patients experienced a high incidence of blindness due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and other severe ocular opportunistic infections. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy, introduced in 1996, dramatically decreased the incidence of CMV retinitis. Though CMV retinitis still causes 40% of vision loss in AIDS patients, other conditions such as immune reconstitution uveitis, cataracts, and a significant othercategory -which most investigators believe is directly due to HIV - comprise the majority of cases. HIV causes vascular abnormalities of the conjunctiva and retina in the majority of AIDS patients, as well as retinitis, anterior and posterior uveitis and vasculitis. HIV frequently causes an optic neuropathy and is responsible for the majority of eye movement disorders among HIV patients. Physicians need to be aware that these problems may be the initial manifestation of HIV infections or a sign of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) failure. Therefore, patients with identifiable risk factors for AIDS who present with ophthalmologic conditions of unknown etiology should be considered for HIV testing. Finally, anti-retroviral therapy has been reported to cause asymptomatic deposits as well as degenerative conditions of both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Full article
73 KiB  
Brief Report
Screening and Detection of Heterogenous Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Hospital Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, Using the Glycopeptide Resistance Detection Etest and Population Analysis Profiling
by Siti Roszilawati Ramli, Hui-min Neoh, Muhammad Nazri Aziz and Salasawati Hussin
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e20; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e20 - 07 Mar 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
In a 3-month study done in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), 7 out of 320 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed as heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) using the glycopeptide resistance detection e-test and population analysis, giving a prevalence rate of 2.19%. [...] Read more.
In a 3-month study done in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), 7 out of 320 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were confirmed as heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) using the glycopeptide resistance detection e-test and population analysis, giving a prevalence rate of 2.19%. This is the first report of hVISA in Malaysia. Full article
556 KiB  
Article
Small-Volume Hypertonic Saline/Pentastarch Improves Ileal Mucosal Microcirculation in Experimental Peritonitis
by Abdelnasser Assadi, Olivier Desebbe, Thomas Rimmelé, Arnal Florence, Joëlle Goudable, Dominique Chassard and Bernard Allaouchiche
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e22; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e22 - 05 Mar 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
We compared the effects of hypertonic saline 7.2%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HSS-HES) and isotonic saline 0.9%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (ISS-HES) on ileal microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) at the initial phase of septic shock. Pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Catheters were inserted into right atrium, [...] Read more.
We compared the effects of hypertonic saline 7.2%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (HSS-HES) and isotonic saline 0.9%/6% hydroxyethyl starch (ISS-HES) on ileal microcirculatory blood flow (MBF) at the initial phase of septic shock. Pigs were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Catheters were inserted into right atrium, pulmonary artery, carotid artery, and portal vein for hemodynamic measurements and for blood sampling. Ileal mucosal and muscularis MBF was continuously measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Septic shock was obtained 240 min after induction of fecal peritonitis; then animals were randomized to receive 10 mL.kg-1 during 10 min of either HSS-HES or ISS-HES. Systemic and microcirculatory blood flow as well as systemic metabolism were assessed. Fecal peritonitis promoted a hypodynamic septic shock, with significant reduction of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac index (CI). Ileal mucosal MBF (-34%) and ileal muscularis MBF (-54%) significantly diminished from baseline. Contrary to ISS-HES group, mucosal MBF significantly augmented after HSS-HES (+192% at min 150 post-shock) despite low blood pressure. There was weak correlation with CI (r²= 0.2, P = 0.01) . Muscularis MBF didn’t change. HSS-HES-treated animals had a significantly higher osmolarity and sodium concentration than ISS-HES group. Other variables did not change. Small-volume resuscitation with HSS-HES, but not ISS-HES, improved ileal microcirculatory impairment in experimental peritonitis model of septic shock even when MAP was low. This beneficial microcirculatory effect could be valuable in the management of early severe sepsis. Full article
232 KiB  
Article
Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Three Cases of Necrotizing Infection of the Neck
by Torbjørn Nedrebø, Trond Bruun, Rune Skjåstad, Gunhild Holmaas and Steinar Skrede
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e21; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e21 - 28 Feb 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Necrotizing infections of the head and neck are rare conditions in our hospital. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of three consecutive cases treated in Haukeland University Hospital in western Norway in the year 2010 are described. Two cases of Lemierre’s syndrome and one case [...] Read more.
Necrotizing infections of the head and neck are rare conditions in our hospital. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of three consecutive cases treated in Haukeland University Hospital in western Norway in the year 2010 are described. Two cases of Lemierre’s syndrome and one case with a descending necrotizing mediastinitis (DNM) were diagnosed. All three cases were treated with broad spectrum antibiotics and in two cases surgery was possible. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) with intensive care facilities became recently available at our hospital, and this treatment was used in all these patients regardless of surgery. In one case we describe the use of HBOT on the basis of strong clinical suspicion of anaerobic infection only. Bacterial identification by partial sequencing of the 16SrDNA gene proved to be a useful supplement to conventional culture techniques. All the cases all demonstrated a significant clinical improvement after introduction of HBOT. When HBOT is available, it should be considered as adjunctive treatment in extensive infections with anaerobes. Full article
390 KiB  
Article
Malignant Syphilis as the First Manifestation of HIV Infection
by Efstathios Rallis and Vasileios Paparizos
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e15; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e15 - 23 Feb 2012
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by large papular, nodular and ulcerative lesions affecting the trunk and the extremities and covered with thick crust. We present a case of 52-year-old homosexual male who developed [...] Read more.
Malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by large papular, nodular and ulcerative lesions affecting the trunk and the extremities and covered with thick crust. We present a case of 52-year-old homosexual male who developed malignant syphilis and this was the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous aqueous crystalline penicillin G. Physicians should recognize malignant syphilis and considered it in all HIV-infected individuals with ulceronodular skin lesions. Full article
323 KiB  
Article
Rubella Antibody Screening during Pregnancy in an Urban Area of Northern Italy
by Massimo De Paschale, Maria Teresa Manco, Alessia Paganini, Carlo Agrappi, Paola Mirri, Gabriella Cucchi, Barbara Saccani, Alberto Flores D’Arcais and Pierangelo Clerici
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e17; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e17 - 22 Feb 2012
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
Various countries have implemented anti-rubella vaccination campaigns with the main aim of preventing congenital infection. In 2003, Italy joined the European WHO programme for the elimination of congenital rubella and issued a special healthcare plan, one of the objectives of which was to [...] Read more.
Various countries have implemented anti-rubella vaccination campaigns with the main aim of preventing congenital infection. In 2003, Italy joined the European WHO programme for the elimination of congenital rubella and issued a special healthcare plan, one of the objectives of which was to reduce the proportion of rubella-susceptible pregnant women to less than 5% by 2005. The aim of this study was to determine the percentage of seronegative pregnant women after the implementation of this plan. Anti-rubella IgG and IgM antibodies were sought in 2385 pregnant women who attended our hospital for serological screening between 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2010. They included 750 women of foreign origin (31.4%). Eight percent of the women were anti-rubella seronegative: 6.2% of the Italians and 11.7% of the non-Italians. Among the women of foreign origin, the percentage of seronegativity ranged from 5.6% of those coming from Eastern Europe to 17.7% of those coming from Latin America. The level of seropositivity among women of Italian origin is high, although the objective of ensuring less than 5% of susceptible pregnant women has not yet been quite reached in our area. However, particular attention needs to be given to women coming from geographical areas characterised by different epidemiologies and vaccination strategies because the percentage of seronegativity is in some cases double that of Italian women. Full article
344 KiB  
Case Report
Streptococcus dysgalactiae Endocarditis Presenting as Acute Endophthalmitis
by Angelina Su-Min Yong, Su Yin Lau, Tsung Han Woo, Jordan Yuanzhi Li and Tuck Yean Yong
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e16; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e16 - 22 Feb 2012
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. [...] Read more.
Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare ocular infection affecting the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. It is associated with poor visual prognosis and its commonest endogenous aetiology is infective endocarditis. The causative organisms of endogenous endophthalmitis complicating endocarditis are mainly Group A or B streptococci. The identification of Group C and G streptococci such as Streptococcus dysgalactiae is comparatively uncommon and has only been reported in a few case reports or series. We therefore report a case of infective endocarditis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae first presenting with endogenous endophthalmitis, the most likely source being bilateral feet osteomyelitis in a patient with type I diabetes. The patient was treated with a course of intravenous benzylpenicillin, intravitreal antibiotics, bilateral below knee amputations and mitral valve replacement. She survived all surgical procedures and regained partial visual acuity in the affected eye. Full article
295 KiB  
Brief Report
Splenic Abscess Due to Salmonella enteritidis
by Hatice Çabadak, Ayşe Erbay, Kerem Karaman, Süha Şen and Yasemin Tezer Tekçe
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e4; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e4 - 17 Feb 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are [...] Read more.
Splenic abscess is a very rare complication of non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. We report a case of splenic abscess caused by Salmonella enteritidis. The patient is a 63-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and underwent splenectomy. This case suggests that the patients with comorbities are at increased risk for invasive infections in non-typhoidal Salmonella infections. Full article
332 KiB  
Article
Gender Differences, Routes of Transmission, Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Prevalence of HIV Related Infections of Adults and Children in an HIV Cohort from a Rural District of India
by Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Manoranjan Midde, Raghavakalyan Pakam and Praveen K. Naik
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e19; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e19 - 17 Feb 2012
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of [...] Read more.
Despite 67% of HIV infected people in India are rural residents, the epidemiology of HIV in rural areas is not well known. This is an observational cohort study of 11,040 HIV infected people living in a rural district of India. The prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis of HIV infected patients were compared to the seroprevalence in 16,641 blood donors from the same area. The age of diagnosis in adults was below 35 years in 70% of cases and 56% were illiterate. One third of women were widows and only 3.6% of adults had a permanent job. Women were diagnosed at earlier age, had lower level of education, had poorer employment conditions and depended more on their relatives than men. In a survey performed to a subgroup of patients, 81% of women referred to have acquired HIV from their spouse, whereas 51% of men acquired HIV from commercial sex. Patients with HIV had significantly higher prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis than blood donors. Seroprevalence of HIV-2, hepatitis C and toxoplasmosis were low compared to other sites. Six percent were children (<15 years) and almost half of them had lost one or both of their parents. The study shows the poor socio-economical situation and the high level of illiteracy of people living with HIV in rural India, especially women. Future health programmes of HIV in India should take into account the particularities of the HIV epidemic in rural areas. Full article
763 KiB  
Review
Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome, Pityriasis Rosea, Asymmetrical Periflexural Exanthem, Unilateral Mediothoracic Exanthem, Eruptive Pseudoangiomatosis and Papular-Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome: A Brief Review and Arguments for Diagnostic Criteria
by Antonio Chuh, Vijay Zawar, Michelle Law and Gabriel Sciallis
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e12; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e12 - 15 Feb 2012
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Several exanthems including Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, pityriasis rosea, asymmetrical periflexural exanthem, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, and papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome are suspected to be caused by viruses. These viruses are potentially dangerous. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is related to hepatitis B virus infection which is the [...] Read more.
Several exanthems including Gianotti-Crosti syndrome, pityriasis rosea, asymmetrical periflexural exanthem, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, and papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome are suspected to be caused by viruses. These viruses are potentially dangerous. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome is related to hepatitis B virus infection which is the commonest cause of hepatocellular carcinoma, and Epstein-Barr virus infection which is related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Pityriasis rosea has been suspected to be related to human herpesvirus 7 and 8 infections, with the significance of the former still largely unknown, and the latter being a known cause of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome is significantly associated with human B19 erythrovirus infection which can lead to aplastic anemia in individuals with congenital hemoglobinopathies, and when transmitted to pregnant women, can cause spontaneous abortions and congenital anomalies. With viral DNA sequence detection technologies, false positive results are common. We can no longer apply Koch’s postulates to establish causeeffect relationships. Biological properties of some viruses including lifelong latent infection, asymptomatic shedding, and endogenous reactivation render virological results on various body tissues difficult to interpret. We might not be able to confirm or refute viral causes for these rashes in the near future. Owing to the relatively small number of patients, virological and epidemiology studies, and treatment trials usually recruit few study and control subjects. This leads to low statistical powers and thus results have little clinical significance. Full article
699 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of (E)-N´-(Monosubstituted-benzylidene) Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives against Isoniazid-Resistant Strains
by Tatiane S. Coelho, Jessica B. Cantos, Marcelle L.F. Bispo, Raoni S.B. Gonçalves, Camilo H.S. Lima, Pedro E.A. da Silva and Marcus De Souza
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e13; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e13 - 06 Feb 2012
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
A series of twenty-three N-acylhydrazones derived from isoniazid (INH 1-23) have been evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against INH- susceptible strain of M. tuberculosis (RG500) and three INH-resistant clinical isolates (RG102, RG103 and RG113). In general, derivatives 4, 14, 15 and [...] Read more.
A series of twenty-three N-acylhydrazones derived from isoniazid (INH 1-23) have been evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity against INH- susceptible strain of M. tuberculosis (RG500) and three INH-resistant clinical isolates (RG102, RG103 and RG113). In general, derivatives 4, 14, 15 and 16 (MIC=1.92, 1.96, 1.96 and 1.86 mM, respectively) showed relevant activities against RG500 strain, while the derivative 13 (MIC=0.98 mM) was more active than INH (MIC=1.14 mM). However, these derivatives were inactive against RGH102, which displays a mutation in the coding region of inhA. These results suggest that the activities of these compounds depend on the inhibition of this enzyme. However, the possibility of other mechanisms of action cannot be excluded, since compounds 2, 4, 6, 7, 12-17, 19, 21 and 23 showed good activities against katG-resistant strain RGH103, being more than 10-fold more active than INH. Full article
354 KiB  
Case Report
Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Casculitis Associated with Levofloxacin Therapy
by Dana Blyth, Elizabeth Markelz and Jason Okulicz
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e11; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e11 - 30 Jan 2012
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Many cases of cutaneous vasculitis are druginduced with histology revealing leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV). We present a case of levofloxacin- associated LCV successfully treated with prednisone and cessation of the offending drug. Although case reports describe a link between LCV and older fluoroquinolones, such [...] Read more.
Many cases of cutaneous vasculitis are druginduced with histology revealing leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV). We present a case of levofloxacin- associated LCV successfully treated with prednisone and cessation of the offending drug. Although case reports describe a link between LCV and older fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, recent reports have implicated the newer fluoroquinolone levofloxacin. Recognition of fluoroquinoloneinduced cutaneous vasculitis is important as continuation or re-exposure of the offending agent may have life-threatening consequences. Full article
113 KiB  
Article
Chest X-rays and Associated Clinical Parameters in Pulmonary Tubercolosis Cases from the National Tubercolosis Programme, Mumbai
by Yatin N. Dholakia, Desiree T.B. D'souza, Monica P. Tolani, Anirvan Chatterjee and Nerges F. Mistry
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e10; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e10 - 18 Jan 2012
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
The study was carried out in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the local Tuberculosis control programme, Mumbai, India. It examined features of chest X-rays and their correlation with clinical parameters for possible application in suspected multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB) and to predict outcome [...] Read more.
The study was carried out in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients from the local Tuberculosis control programme, Mumbai, India. It examined features of chest X-rays and their correlation with clinical parameters for possible application in suspected multidrug resistant TB (MDRTB) and to predict outcome in new and treatment failure PTB cases. X-ray features (infiltrate, cavitation, miliary shadows, pleural effusion, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and extent of lesions) were analyzed to identify associations with biological/clinical parameters through univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Failures demonstrated associations between extensive lesions and high glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) levels (P=0.028) and male gender (P=0.03). An association was also detected between cavitation and MDR (P=0.048). In new cases, bilateral cavities were associated with MDR (P=0.018) and male gender (P=0.01), low body mass index with infiltrates (P=0.008), and smoking with cavitation (P=0.0238). Strains belonging to the Manu1 spoligotype were associated with mild lesions (P=0.002). Poor outcome showed borderline significance with extensive lesions at onset (P=0.053). Furthermore, amongst new cases, smoking, the Central Asian Strain (CAS) spoligotype and high GHb were associated with cavitation, whereas only CAS spoligotypes and high GHb were associated with extensive lesions. The study highlighted associations between certain clinical parameters and X-ray evidence which support the potential of X-rays to predict TB, MDRTB and poor outcome. The use of Xrays as an additional tool to shorten diagnostic delay and shortlist MDR suspects amongst nonresponders to TB treatment should be explored in a setting with limited resources coping with a high MDR case load such as Mumbai. Full article
169 KiB  
Brief Report
Opportunistic Infections in a Renal Transplant Recipient
by Vijaya V. Mysorekar, Mahesh Eshwarappa and Umesh Lingaraj
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e8; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e8 - 05 Jan 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
With the present progress in transplantation procedures, there is an improvement in patient and allograft survival. However, the immunosuppression necessary to sustain the allograft predisposes these transplant recipients to infection, which is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a [...] Read more.
With the present progress in transplantation procedures, there is an improvement in patient and allograft survival. However, the immunosuppression necessary to sustain the allograft predisposes these transplant recipients to infection, which is now a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe a case of a 30-year-old renal transplant recipient with two opportunistic infections, namely, primary cutaneous aspergillosis and intestinal tuberculosis, with terminal enterococcal pleuritis and peritonitis. Control of the degree of immunosuppression, and prompt recognition and treatment of infection are vital for successful organ transplantation. Full article
106 KiB  
Brief Report
The First Reported Cases of Q Fever Endocarditis in Thailand
by Orathai Pachirat, Pierre-Edouard Fournier, Burapha Pussadhamma, Suthep Taksinachanekij, Viraphong Lulitanond, Henry C. Baggett, Somsak Thamthitiwat, George Watt, Didier Raoult and Susan A. Maloney
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e7; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e7 - 04 Jan 2012
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
We describe the first two reported cases of Q fever endocarditis in Thailand. Both patients were male, had pre-existing heart valve damage and had contact with cattle. Heightened awareness of Q fever could improve diagnosis and case management and stimulate efforts to identify [...] Read more.
We describe the first two reported cases of Q fever endocarditis in Thailand. Both patients were male, had pre-existing heart valve damage and had contact with cattle. Heightened awareness of Q fever could improve diagnosis and case management and stimulate efforts to identify risk factors and preventive measures. Full article
75 KiB  
Brief Report
False Negative HIV Antibody Test in HIV Infected Children Who Receive Early Antiretroviral Treatment in a Resource-Limited Setting
by Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Praveen K. Naik, Manoranjan Midde, Shanmugamari Kannan and Raghuprakash Reddy
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e6; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e6 - 04 Jan 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
With the implementation of 2010 World Health Organization guidelines, the number of infants from developing countries who will initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase considerably. In this study we describe the HIV antibody tests of 14 HIV infected children who initiated ART at [...] Read more.
With the implementation of 2010 World Health Organization guidelines, the number of infants from developing countries who will initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase considerably. In this study we describe the HIV antibody tests of 14 HIV infected children who initiated ART at age less than one year in a rural setting of India. The HIV rapid test was negative in seven and indeterminate in two cases, whereas the HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody test was negative in three and indeterminate in one case. In one child who had both negative HIV rapid test and ELISA initially, HIV serology turned positive after having a virological failure to ART, suggesting the possibility of utilizing HIV serology for monitoring ART effectiveness in children who experience HIV seroreversion. In conclusion, HIV seroreversion of children with early initiation of ART is common and should be considered for avoiding misdiagnosis of HIV infection.
Full article
356 KiB  
Brief Report
No Clinical or Biological Difference between Chikungunya and Dengue Fever during the 2010 Gabonese Outbreak
by Dieudonne Nkoghe, Roland Fabrice Kassa Kassa, Ulrich Bisvigou, Mélanie Caron, Gilda Grard and Eric Maurice Leroy
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e5; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e5 - 03 Jan 2012
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Dengue (DENV) viruses, both arboviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks worldwide. Their clinical features are poorly described in Africa and there is no comparative study, although Chikungunya is considered as a dengue-like disease. We conducted a comparative study of clinical and [...] Read more.
Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Dengue (DENV) viruses, both arboviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks worldwide. Their clinical features are poorly described in Africa and there is no comparative study, although Chikungunya is considered as a dengue-like disease. We conducted a comparative study of clinical and biological data from CHIKV and DENV positive patients during the 2010 Gabonese outbreak. Patients consulting with general symptoms and having laboratory confirmation for CHIKV or DENV were included. Clinical and biological data were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using Epi Info. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. In all, 270 CHIKV+, 53 DENV+ and 20 co-infected patients were included in the study. Headaches, hemorrhage, leukopenia and lymphopenia were significantly (P respectively 0.01, 0.001, 0.02 and 0.001) more frequent in DENV+ patients than in CHIKV+. There was no additive effect of the two viruses. These clinical and hematological disorders are non specific and cannot assist for the differential diagnosis. These diseases are clinically indistinguishable, and need for laboratory confirmation. Full article
641 KiB  
Review
Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV-Associated Manifestations in Otolaryngology
by Emily Iacovou, Petros V. Vlastarakos, George Papacharalampous, George Kampessis and Thomas P. Nikolopoulos
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e9; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e9 - 02 Jan 2012
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature [...] Read more.
Almost 30 years after its first description, HIV still remains a global pandemic. The present paper aims to review the current knowledge on the ear, nose and throat (ENT) manifestations of HIV infection, and present the available diagnostic and treatment options. A literature review was conducted in Medline and other available database sources. Information from related books was also included in the data analysis. It is well acknowledged that up to 80% of HIV-infected patients eventually develop ENT manifestations; among which, oral disease appears to be the most common. Oro-pharyngeal manifestations include candidiasis, periodontal and gingival disease, HSV and HPV infection, oral hairy leucoplakia, Kaposi’s sarcoma, and non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma. ENT manifestations in the neck can present as cervical lymphadenopathy or parotid gland enlargement. Respective nasal manifestations include sinusitis (often due to atypical bacteria), and allergic rhinitis. Finally, otological manifestations include otitis (externa, or media), inner ear involvement (sensorineural hearing loss, disequilibrium), and facial nerve palsy (up to 100 times more frequently compared to the general population). Although ENT symptoms are not diagnostic of the disease, they might be suggestive of HIV infection, or related to its progression and the respective treatment failure. ENT doctors should be aware of the ENT manifestations associated with HIV disease, and the respective diagnosis and treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach may be required to provide the appropriate level of care to HIV patients. Full article
290 KiB  
Brief Report
A Rare Case of Acute Epiglottitis Due to Staphylococcus aureus in an Adult
by Clare Harris, Lisa Sharkey, George Koshy, Nicola Simler and Johannis Andreas Karas
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e3; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.e3 - 02 Jan 2012
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1
Abstract
Epiglottitis has been mainly associated with childhood infection with Haemophilis influenzae type B but cases of adult epiglottitis are increasing. We report here a case of adult epiglottitis and present evidence that it was caused by S. aureus. A 48-year old patient [...] Read more.
Epiglottitis has been mainly associated with childhood infection with Haemophilis influenzae type B but cases of adult epiglottitis are increasing. We report here a case of adult epiglottitis and present evidence that it was caused by S. aureus. A 48-year old patient with clinical symptoms of epiglottitis grew Staphylococcus aureus in pure culture from an epiglottal swab. Staphylococcus aureus should be considered as a potential pathogen in adult epiglottitis. Full article
75 KiB  
Brief Report
Pseudomonas Pelvic Osteomyelitis in a Healthy Child
by Nour Akhras and Alexander Blackwood
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e1; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.1935 - 27 Dec 2011
Viewed by 2
Abstract
Pediatric pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare entity. The diagnosis is frequently delayed due to difficulty in confirming the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a previously healthy adolescent boy. The diagnosis was made radiographically [...] Read more.
Pediatric pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare entity. The diagnosis is frequently delayed due to difficulty in confirming the diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of Pseudomonas pelvic osteomyelitis in a previously healthy adolescent boy. The diagnosis was made radiographically and confirmed by culture. The patient was treated with Levofloxacin and Gentamicin resulting in a complete recovery. Full article
136 KiB  
Brief Report
Concomitant Cat Scratch Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Cardiac Transplant
by Nitin Bhanot, George G. Sokos, Raymond L. Benza and Srinivas Murali
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2012, 4(1), e2; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2012.3222 - 22 Dec 2011
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2
Abstract
Cat scratch disease has been reported very rarely in cardiac transplant recipients. In a review of 1073 episodes of infection in 620 heart transplant patients over a 16 year period, only one case of infection secondary to Bartonella henselae was documented. Another case [...] Read more.
Cat scratch disease has been reported very rarely in cardiac transplant recipients. In a review of 1073 episodes of infection in 620 heart transplant patients over a 16 year period, only one case of infection secondary to Bartonella henselae was documented. Another case of hepatosplenic bacillary angiomatosis from B. henselae was reported 2 decades ago in a heart transplant recipient who had presented with fevers of unknown origin. Although the typical clinical manifestation is that of a skin lesion accompanied with lymphadenopathy, cat scratch disease may present with persistent fevers without a clinically overt infective focus in immunosuppressed individuals. Moreover, more than one disease process may coexist in immunocompromised hosts. While the lymphadenopathy in our patient was secondary to Cat scratch disease, interestingly, the adjacent skin lesion that was thought to represent unhealed site of inoculation of Bartonella was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop