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Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 3, Issue 2 (September 2011) – 7 articles

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Article
Prevalence of Dihydrofolate Reductase Gene Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum Isolate from Pregnant Women in Nigeria
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 73-76; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.e16 - 16 Dec 2011
Cited by 8
Abstract
We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparumisolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester [...] Read more.
We assessed the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the frequency of the dhfr triple mutation that is associated with antifolate drug resistance among P. falciparumisolates obtained from pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria. The study included 179 women in the second and third trimester of pregnancy who have been exposed to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxinepyrimethamine. Thick and thin blood films and PCR were used for malaria parasite detection. Blood group and hemoglobin concentration were also determined. Mutations in P. falciparum dhfr were analyzed by sequencing DNA obtained from blood spots on filter paper. Prevalence of P. falciparum in the population (PCR corrected) was 44.1% (79/179) with 66.7% and 33.3% in the second and third trimester, respectively. Primigravide (51.3%) were more infected than multigravide (48.7%) but the difference was not statistically significant. Women in blood group A had the highest P. falciparum malaria infection (30.8%). The mean hemoglobin concentration was lower among those infected with malaria parasite. Also, more women with the malaria parasite (38.4%) had anemia compare to those without (21.4%). The prevalence of the P. falciparum dhfr mutant alleles was 64.1%, 61.5%, 38.5%, and 12.8% for I51, R59, N108 and T108, respectively. None of the samples had the L164 mutation. The combined triple dhfr mutation (51 + 59 + 108) in the population was 17.9% (7 of 39). Also, the prevalence of the triple mutant alleles was not significantly associated to the number of doses of SP taken by the women. These findings highlight the need for a regular assessment of IPTp/SP efficacy, and evaluation of possible alternative drugs. Full article
Article
Infection with Cytomegalovirus is not Associated with Premature Mortality
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 77-82; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.3257 - 05 Dec 2011
Cited by 2
Abstract
Over 90% of the world’s population acquires a cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This infection, although asymptomatic or self-limiting, is a major burden to the immune system. For this reason, and because CMV immunization is possible, determining whether CMV can cause reduced longevity, particularly among [...] Read more.
Over 90% of the world’s population acquires a cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. This infection, although asymptomatic or self-limiting, is a major burden to the immune system. For this reason, and because CMV immunization is possible, determining whether CMV can cause reduced longevity, particularly among those with coronary artery disease, is important and previous reports have been conflicting. Thus our objective was to assess the association between CMV infection as defined serologically and antibody levels against CMV and longterm survival (18 years). We completed a prospective observational cohort study of 915 consecutive patients (mean age 58 years) undergoing coronary angiography. CMV immunoglobulin levels were measured at baseline using either a whole cell CMV antigen or a purified protein antigen (gB). After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, race, gender, body mass index, the presence or absence of coronary artery disease, the number of diseased vessels, diabetes, renal disease, hypertension, dialysis, congestive heart failure, and the maximum percent reduction in luminal diameter), Cox’s proportional hazards models showed no association between CMV seropositivity or levels of antibodies against CMV by either assay and longevity for both patients with or without coronary artery disease (CAD) nor for those under or over 70 years of age at baseline. Our observations suggest that universal immunization against CMV may not improve longevity. Full article
Article
Cat-Scratch Disease in Crete: An Update
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 69-72; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.3210 - 05 Dec 2011
Cited by 2
Abstract
There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections [...] Read more.
There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD) on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11%) cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56) were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05). Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002) and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity. Full article
Brief Report
Bosentan and Sildenafil in the Treatment of HIV-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 66-68; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.e14 - 22 Nov 2011
Cited by 4
Abstract
We present the case of an HIV/HCV-coinfected patient with HIV-related pulmonary hypertension (HRPH) who experienced a good clinical and functional response to bosentan, with a subsequent switch to oral sildenafil due to increased transaminase levels. Bosentan resulted less handy in this case, probably [...] Read more.
We present the case of an HIV/HCV-coinfected patient with HIV-related pulmonary hypertension (HRPH) who experienced a good clinical and functional response to bosentan, with a subsequent switch to oral sildenafil due to increased transaminase levels. Bosentan resulted less handy in this case, probably due to both side effects and co-morbidities. Full article
Brief Report
Hyper-Reactive Malarial Splenomegaly and Splenic Infarct in a Caucasian Toddler
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 64-65; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.3785 - 15 Nov 2011
Cited by 2
Abstract
A 4-year-old boy from the United States had been staying in Indonesia for five months when he presented with fever, severe lethargy, progressive weight loss, and abdominal distension. He was first diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection in Indonesia and received treatment with chloroquine. [...] Read more.
A 4-year-old boy from the United States had been staying in Indonesia for five months when he presented with fever, severe lethargy, progressive weight loss, and abdominal distension. He was first diagnosed with Plasmodium vivax infection in Indonesia and received treatment with chloroquine. However, his condition continued to deteriorate and he required erythrocyte transfusion for severe anemia. Three weeks into his illness, he was found to have low parasitemia with Plasmodium falciparum with massive hepatosplenomegaly in Singapore. A splenic infarct was also documented on computed tomography. Treatment with atovaquone-proguanil resulted in stabilization of the hemoglobin level and rapid reduction in splenic size, with clearance of malarial parasites from the bloodstream. Although reported typically in adult tropical residents, hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly may occasionally be found in the pediatric traveler. Clinicians receiving children returning from the tropical regions should be aware of this potentially life-threatening complication of partially treated malaria. Full article
Brief Report
Invasive Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Patient with Fever and a Cardiac Mass
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 62-63; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2260 - 25 Oct 2011
Cited by 1
Abstract
Invasive aspergillosis is an often fatal disease that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of invasive aspergillosis presenting as a febrile respiratory infection with a cardiac mass in an immunocompetent patient. Invasive aspergillosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis [...] Read more.
Invasive aspergillosis is an often fatal disease that usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of invasive aspergillosis presenting as a febrile respiratory infection with a cardiac mass in an immunocompetent patient. Invasive aspergillosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an otherwise undiagnosed febrile respiratory illness, even in immunocompetent patients. Echocardiography should be peformed to evaluate for endocarditis in such cases. Prompt initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy is warranted, even before the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is confirmed. Full article
Article
Nanoparticles Containing siRNA to Silence CD4 and CCR5 Reduce Expression of These Receptors and Inhibit HIV-1 Infection in Human Female Reproductive Tract Tissue Explants
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2011, 3(2), 52-61; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2011.2370 - 07 Sep 2011
Cited by 9
Abstract
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV- 1) binds to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on target cells in the human female reproductive tract. We sought to determine whether reducing levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts that encode these receptors in female reproductive tract cells could [...] Read more.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus-type 1 (HIV- 1) binds to CD4 and CCR5 receptors on target cells in the human female reproductive tract. We sought to determine whether reducing levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts that encode these receptors in female reproductive tract cells could protect mucosal tissue explants from HIV- 1 infection. Explants prepared from the endometrium, endocervix, and ectocervix of hysterectomy tissues from HIV-1 sero-negative women were exposed to nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific short-interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences. Explants were then exposed two days later to HIV-1, and HIV-1 reverse transcripts were measured five days post-infection. Explants treated with nanoparticles containing CD4- and CCR5-specific siRNA showed reduced levels of CD4 and CCR5 transcripts, and significantly lower levels of HIV-1 reverse transcripts compared to those treated with an irrelevant siRNA. In female reproductive tract explants and in peripheral blood cell cultures, siRNA transfection induced the secretion of IFN-alpha (IFN-α), a potent antiviral cytokine. In female mice, murine-specific Cd4-siRNA nanoparticles instilled within the uterus significantly reduced murine Cd4 transcripts by day 3. Our findings demonstrate that siRNA nanoparticles reduce expression of HIV-1 infectivity receptors in human female reproductive tract tissues and also inhibit HIV-1 infection. Murine studies demonstrate that nanoparticles can penetrate the reproductive tract tissues in vivo and silence gene expression. The induction of IFN-α after siRNA transfection can potentially contribute to the antiviral effect. These findings support the therapeutic development of nanoparticles to deliver siRNA molecules to silence host cell receptors in the female reproductive tract as a novel microbicide to inhibit mucosal HIV-1 transmission. Full article
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