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Open AccessArticle

Influenza D Virus: Serological Evidence in the Italian Population from 2005 to 2017

1
Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Via Aldo Moro, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
VisMederi srl, Strada del Petriccio e Belriguardo 35, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
4
VisMederi Research srl, Strada del Petriccio e Belriguardo 35, 53100 Siena, Italy
5
Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, 792 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this article.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010030
Received: 28 November 2019 / Revised: 18 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
Influenza D virus is a novel influenza virus, which was first isolated from an ailing swine in 2011 and later detected in cattle, suggesting that these animals may be a primary natural reservoir. To date, few studies have been performed on human samples and there is no conclusive evidence on the ability of the virus to infect humans. The aim of this serological study was to assess the prevalence of antibodies against influenza D virus in human serum samples collected in Italy from 2005 to 2017. Serum samples were analysed by haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization assays. The results showed that the prevalence of antibodies against the virus increased in the human population in Italy from 2005 to 2017, with a trend characterized by a sharp increase in some years, followed by a decline in subsequent years. The virus showed the ability to infect and elicit an immune response in humans. However, prevalence peaks in humans appear to follow epidemics in animals and not to persist in the human population. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza D virus; seroprevalence; humans; Italy influenza D virus; seroprevalence; humans; Italy
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Trombetta, C.M.; Marchi, S.; Manini, I.; Kistner, O.; Li, F.; Piu, P.; Manenti, A.; Biuso, F.; Sreenivasan, C.; Druce, J.; Montomoli, E. Influenza D Virus: Serological Evidence in the Italian Population from 2005 to 2017. Viruses 2020, 12, 30.

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