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Open AccessArticle

Pestivirus Infections in Semi-Domesticated Eurasian Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Serological Study in Finnmark County, Norway

1
Norwegian Veterinary Institute, N-0106 Oslo/N-9010 Tromsø, Norway
2
Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7054, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
5
Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, N-0033 Oslo, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010029
Received: 8 December 2019 / Revised: 23 December 2019 / Accepted: 24 December 2019 / Published: 26 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Related Pestiviruses)
Members of the Pestivirus genus (family Flaviviridae) cause severe and economically important diseases in livestock. Serological studies have revealed the presence of pestiviruses in different cervid species, including wild and semi-domesticated Eurasian tundra reindeer. In this retrospective study, serum samples collected between 2006 and 2008 from 3339 semi-domesticated Eurasian reindeer from Finnmark County, Norway, were tested for anti-pestivirus antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a subset of these by virus neutralization test (VNT). A seroprevalence of 12.5% was found, varying from 0% to 45% among different herding districts, and 20% in western Finnmark, as compared to 1.7% in eastern Finnmark. Seroprevalence increased with age. Pestivirus-specific RNA was not detected in any of the 225 serum samples tested by real-time RT-PCR. Based on VNT results, using a panel of one bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain and two border disease virus (BDV) strains, the virus is most likely a reindeer-specific pestivirus closely related to BDV. A characterization of the causative virus and its pathogenic impact on reindeer populations, as well as its potential to infect other domestic and wild ruminants, should be further investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: bvdv; epidemiology; reindeer; border disease virus; Norway bvdv; epidemiology; reindeer; border disease virus; Norway
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das Neves, C.G.; Johansson Wensman, J.; Nymo, I.H.; Skjerve, E.; Alenius, S.; Tryland, M. Pestivirus Infections in Semi-Domesticated Eurasian Tundra Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Serological Study in Finnmark County, Norway. Viruses 2020, 12, 29.

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