Next Article in Journal
Glycine Cleavage System and cAMP Receptor Protein Co-Regulate CRISPR/cas3 Expression to Resist Bacteriophage
Next Article in Special Issue
Risk Mapping of Influenza D Virus Occurrence in Ruminants and Swine in Togo Using a Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Detection of a Reassortant H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus with Intercontinental Gene Segments in a Resident Australian Chestnut Teal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Influenza D Virus: Serological Evidence in the Italian Population from 2005 to 2017
Open AccessReview

Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Influenza C Virus

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
Institute for Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity in Children (i4Kids), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 89;
Received: 30 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 7 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
Influenza C virus (ICV) is a common yet under-recognized cause of acute respiratory illness. ICV seropositivity has been found to be as high as 90% by 7–10 years of age, suggesting that most people are exposed to ICV at least once during childhood. Due to difficulty detecting ICV by cell culture, epidemiologic studies of ICV likely have underestimated the burden of ICV infection and disease. Recent development of highly sensitive RT-PCR has facilitated epidemiologic studies that provide further insights into the prevalence, seasonality, and course of ICV infection. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of ICV. View Full-Text
Keywords: orthomyxoviruses; influenza C; epidemiology orthomyxoviruses; influenza C; epidemiology
MDPI and ACS Style

Sederdahl, B.K.; Williams, J.V. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Influenza C Virus. Viruses 2020, 12, 89.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop