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Open AccessArticle

New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms

Università degli Studi di Napoli Parthenope, Department for Technologies, Centro Direzionale, Is. C4 – 80143 Napoli, Italy
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Deptartment of Electrical Engineering,Via Claudio 21, Napoli, Italy
Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electrical Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino, Italy
Università degli Studi di Cassino, Deptartment of Industrial Engineering, Via G. Di Biasio 43, Cassino, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2010, 3(4), 650-670;
Received: 21 February 2010 / Revised: 23 March 2010 / Accepted: 29 March 2010 / Published: 1 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Energy)
PDF [249 KB, uploaded 17 March 2015]


Distribution networks are undergoing radical changes due to the high level of penetration of dispersed generation. Dispersed generation systems require particular attention due to their incorporation of uncertain energy sources, such as wind farms, and due to the impacts that such sources have on the planning and operation of distribution networks. In particular, the foreseeable, extensive use of wind turbine generator units in the future requires that distribution system engineers properly account for their impacts on the system. Many new technical considerations must be addressed, including protection coordination, steady-state analysis, and power quality issues. This paper deals with the very short-term, steady-state analysis of a distribution system with wind farms, for which the time horizon of interest ranges from one hour to a few hours ahead. Several wind-forecasting methods are presented in order to obtain reliable input data for the steady-state analysis. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods were considered and used in performing deterministic and probabilistic load-flow analyses. Numerical applications on a 17-bus, medium-voltage, electrical distribution system with various wind farms connected at different busbars are presented and discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: wind energy; steady-state analysis; load-flow wind energy; steady-state analysis; load-flow

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Bracale, A.; Carpinelli, G.; Proto, D.; Russo, A.; Varilone, P. New Approaches for Very Short-term Steady-State Analysis of An Electrical Distribution System with Wind Farms. Energies 2010, 3, 650-670.

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