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Pathophysiology, Volume 29, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 8 articles

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15 pages, 2462 KiB  
Article
The Endothelial Glycocalyx and Retinal Hemodynamics
by Gaganpreet Kaur, Wendy Leskova and Norman R. Harris
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 663-677; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040052 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1445
Abstract
Purpose. Previous studies suggest that the endothelial glycocalyx adds to vascular resistance, inhibits thrombosis, and is critical for regulating homogeneous blood flow and ensuring uniform red blood cell (RBC) distribution. However, these functions and consequences of the glycocalyx have not been examined in [...] Read more.
Purpose. Previous studies suggest that the endothelial glycocalyx adds to vascular resistance, inhibits thrombosis, and is critical for regulating homogeneous blood flow and ensuring uniform red blood cell (RBC) distribution. However, these functions and consequences of the glycocalyx have not been examined in the retina. We hypothesize that the endothelial glycocalyx is a critical regulator of retinal hemodynamics and perfusion and decreases the propensity for retinal thrombus formation. Methods. Hyaluronidase and heparinase, which are endothelial glycocalyx-degrading enzymes, were infused into mice. Fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran (2000 kDa) was injected to measure lumen diameter, while RBC velocity and distribution were measured using fluorescently labeled RBCs. The diameters and velocities were used to calculate retinal blood flow and shear rates. Mean circulation time was calculated by measuring the difference between arteriolar and venular mean transit times. Rose Bengal dye was infused, followed by illumination with a green light to induce thrombosis. Results. The acute infusion of hyaluronidase and heparinase led to significant increases in both arteriolar (7%) and venular (16%) diameters in the retina, with a tendency towards increased arteriolar velocity. In addition, the degradation caused a significant decrease in the venular shear rate (14%). The enzyme infusion resulted in substantial increases in total retinal blood flow (26%) and retinal microhematocrit but no changes in the mean circulation time through the retina. We also observed an enhanced propensity for retinal thrombus formation with the removal of the glycocalyx. Conclusions. Our data suggest that acute degradation of the glycocalyx can cause significant changes in retinal hemodynamics, with increases in vessel diameter, blood flow, microhematocrit, pro-thrombotic conditions, and decreases in venular shear rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Pathophysiology)
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13 pages, 591 KiB  
Review
Role of Candida albicans in Oral Carcinogenesis
by Nurina Febriyanti Ayuningtyas, Fatma Yasmin Mahdani, Togu Andrie Simon Pasaribu, Muhammad Chalim, Visilmi Kaffah Putri Ayna, Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh, Luigi Santacroce and Meircurius Dwi Condro Surboyo
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 650-662; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040051 - 7 Dec 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2642
Abstract
Oral carcinogenesis is also dependent on the balance of the oral microbiota. Candida albicans is a member oral microbiota that acts as an opportunistic pathogen along with changes in the epithelium that can predispose to premalignancy and/or malignancy. This systematic review uses the [...] Read more.
Oral carcinogenesis is also dependent on the balance of the oral microbiota. Candida albicans is a member oral microbiota that acts as an opportunistic pathogen along with changes in the epithelium that can predispose to premalignancy and/or malignancy. This systematic review uses the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines to analyze the role of Candida albicans in the process of oral carcinogenesis. Eleven articles qualified inclusion criteria, matched keywords, and provided adequate information about the carcinogenesis parameters of Candida albicans in oral cancer. Candida albicans in oral carcinogenesis can be seen as significant virulent factors for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) or potentially malignant disorder (OPMD) with normal adjacent mucosa. Candida albicans have a role in the process of oral carcinogenesis concerning morphological phenotype changes in cell structure and genotype and contribute to the formation of carcinogenic substances that can affect cell development towards malignancy. Full article
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10 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
The Effect of TGFβ1 in Adipocyte on Inflammatory and Fibrotic Markers at Different Stages of Adipocyte Differentiation
by Babu Raja Maharjan, Susan V. McLennan, Stephen M. Twigg and Paul F. Williams
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 640-649; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040050 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1657
Abstract
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a versatile cytokine. Although a profibrotic role of TGFβ is well established, its effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) and inflammatory mediators are incompletely described. This study investigates the profibrotic and pro-inflammatory role of TGFβ1 during [...] Read more.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a versatile cytokine. Although a profibrotic role of TGFβ is well established, its effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) and inflammatory mediators are incompletely described. This study investigates the profibrotic and pro-inflammatory role of TGFβ1 during adipocyte differentiation. NIH3T3L1 cells were used for the in vitro study and were differentiated by adding a standard differentiation mix either with rosiglitazone (R-Diff) or without (S-Diff). Recombinant TGFβ1 (2 ng/mL) was added to the undifferentiated preadipocyte during the commitment stage and at the terminal differentiation stage. TGFβ1 treatment significantly decreased adiponectin mRNA at both early commitment (>300 fold) and terminal differentiated cells [S-Diff (~33%) or R-Diff (~20%)]. TGFβ1 upregulated collagen VI mRNA and its regulators connective tissue growth factor (CCN2/CTGF), TIMP1 and TIMP3 mRNA levels in undifferentiated preadipocytes and adipocytes at commitment stage. But in the terminal differentiated adipocytes, changes in mRNA and protein of collagen VI and TIMP3 mRNA were not observed despite an increase in CCN2/CTGF, TIMP1 mRNA. Although TGFβ1 upregulated interleukin-6 (IL6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP1) mRNA at all stages of differentiation, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) mRNA was observed early in adipocyte differentiation. This study highlights the complex role of TGFβ1 on extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammatory markers in stimulating both synthetic and inhibitory markers of fibrosis at different stages of adipocyte differentiation. Full article
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9 pages, 873 KiB  
Article
Dietary Supplementation with D-Ribose-L-Cysteine Prevents Hepatic Stress and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Male Wistar Rats Fed a High-Fructose High-Fat Diet
by Abodunrin Adebayo Ojetola, Jerome Ndudi Asiwe, Wale Johnson Adeyemi, Dare Joshua Ogundipe and Adesoji Adedipe Fasanmade
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 631-639; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040049 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Diets rich in fats and fructose are associated with the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine (DRLC) in high-fructose high-fat (HFHF) diet-fed rats. Twenty rats (n = 5), divided into four groups, were [...] Read more.
Diets rich in fats and fructose are associated with the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Therefore, we investigated the effect of D-ribose-L-cysteine (DRLC) in high-fructose high-fat (HFHF) diet-fed rats. Twenty rats (n = 5), divided into four groups, were simultaneously exposed to HFHF and/or DRLC (250 mg/kg) orally during the 8 weeks of the study. Results showed that HFHF precipitated pro-inflammation and selective disruption of the oxidative stress markers. There were significant decreases in the level of antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), hepatic SOD and GPX. Significant increases in serum levels of uric acid (UA), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and hepatic Xanthine oxidase (XO) were observed in the HFHF compared to the control. In the HFHF + DRLC group, oxidative stress was mitigated due to differences in serum levels of SOD, GPX, TAC, TNF-α, liver SOD, and XO relative to control. The administration of DRLC alone caused significant reductions in malondialdehyde, UA and CRP and a significant increase in SOD compared to the control. DRLC prevents hepatic and systemic oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory events in HFHF diet-fed rats. Full article
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12 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Player Sex and Playing Surface Are Individual Predictors of Injuries in Professional Soccer Players
by Zakariya H. Nawasreh, Mohammad A. Yabroudi, Ahmad A. Darwish, Wesam A. Debes and Khaldoon M. Bashaireh
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 619-630; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040048 - 26 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2214
Abstract
Background: The factors contributing to soccer injuries and their influence on the occurrence of injury are controversial and inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the association between player characteristics and playing factors with injuries in professional soccer players. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two [...] Read more.
Background: The factors contributing to soccer injuries and their influence on the occurrence of injury are controversial and inconclusive. This study aimed to determine the association between player characteristics and playing factors with injuries in professional soccer players. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two professional soccer players completed a self-administered questionnaire that asked about demographic information and injury profile, the type of playing surface on which they sustained their injury, medical treatment, and the time lost due to soccer injury at the end of the soccer season. Results: The injury rate was 44.74% (n = 68; males: 61.50% (n = 56), females: 19.70% (n = 12)). Players’ age (OR: 1.15, 95%CI: 1.05–1.25, p < 0.002) and BMI (OR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.06–1.38, p < 0.003) were significantly associated with soccer injuries. After adjusting for age and BMI, players’ sex (OR: 5.39, 95%CI: 2.11–13.75, p < 0.001), previous soccer injury (OR: 3.308, 95%CI: 2.307–29.920, p < 0.001), and playing surfaces (OR: 11.07, 95%CI: 4.53–27.03, p < 0.001) were the significant predictors of soccer injuries. Conclusion: Players’ age, BMI, sex, previous soccer injury, and playing surface were associated with injuries among professional soccer players. Old male athletes with high BMI, previous soccer injuries, and playing on natural grass were more likely to sustain soccer injuries than young female players with low BMI who had no previous injuries and played on synthetic surfaces. Full article
9 pages, 2364 KiB  
Case Report
Conservative Management of Spontaneous Left Main Coronary Artery Dissection (SCAD) Triggered by Emotional Stress in the Late Postpartum Period: Case Report and Pathophysiology
by Jaksa Zanchi, Dino Miric, Lovel Giunio, Anteo Bradaric Slujo, Mislav Lozo, Duje Erceg, Duje Orsulic and Josip A. Borovac
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 610-618; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040047 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
A spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) during the postpartum period is a serious medical emergency and the most important non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease (CAD) in this population. While conservative management is recommended in most SCAD scenarios, cases complicated by hemodynamic instability [...] Read more.
A spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) during the postpartum period is a serious medical emergency and the most important non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease (CAD) in this population. While conservative management is recommended in most SCAD scenarios, cases complicated by hemodynamic instability or cardiogenic shock are particularly challenging and might be amenable only with invasive percutaneous or cardiothoracic surgical management. Herein, we present a case of a 35-year-old otherwise healthy woman that suffered an intense emotional stress event and was subsequently admitted with crushing chest pain to the emergency department. The initial electrocardiogram showed dynamic changes suggesting anterolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction. She gave birth to a healthy child 3 months before the current presentation. Diagnostic angiography found no occlusive CAD but instead an extensive intramural hematoma originating from the left main artery dissection and extending to the whole left coronary circulation was observed. Hemodynamic instability and hypotension soon followed, and the patient went into cardiogenic shock. The heart team opted for conservative and supportive intensive care management without surgical or percutaneous intervention. This decision ultimately led to the successful extubation of the patient and the achievement of hemodynamic stability. The patient was eventually safely discharged home without any permanent disability. Full article
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15 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Microstructural Properties of Brain White Matter Tracts in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
by Tatyana Bukkieva, Maria Pospelova, Aleksandr Efimtsev, Olga Fionik, Tatyana Alekseeva, Konstantin Samochernykh, Elena Gorbunova, Varvara Krasnikova, Albina Makhanova, Aleksandra Nikolaeva, Samvel Tonyan, Anna Lepekhina, Anatoliy Levchuk, Gennadiy Trufanov, Serik Akshulakov and Maxim Shevtsov
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 595-609; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040046 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4054
Abstract
Complex breast cancer (BC) treatment can cause various neurological and psychiatric complications, such as postmastectomy pain syndrome, vestibulocerebellar ataxia, and depression, which can lead to microstructural damage of the white matter tracts of the brain. The purpose of the study is to assess [...] Read more.
Complex breast cancer (BC) treatment can cause various neurological and psychiatric complications, such as postmastectomy pain syndrome, vestibulocerebellar ataxia, and depression, which can lead to microstructural damage of the white matter tracts of the brain. The purpose of the study is to assess microstructural changes in the white matter tracts of the brain in BC survivors using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Single DTI scans were performed on patients (n = 84) after complex BC treatment (i.e., surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy) and on the control group (n = 40). According to the results, a decrease in the quantitative anisotropy (FDR ≤ 0.05) was revealed in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, cerebellar tracts, corpus callosum, fornix, left superior corticostriatal and left corticopontine parietal in patients after BC treatment in comparison to the control group. A decrease in the quantitative anisotropy (FDR ≤ 0.05) was also revealed in the corpus callosum and right cerebellar tracts in patients after BC treatment with the presence of postmastectomy pain syndrome and vestibulocerebellar ataxia. The use of DTI in patients after BC treatment reveals microstructural properties of the white matter tracts in the brain. The results will allow for the improvement of treatment and rehabilitation approaches in patients receiving treatment for breast cancer. Full article
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12 pages, 2501 KiB  
Article
Ferritin, Serum Iron and Hemoglobin as Acute Phase Reactants in Laparoscopic and Open Surgery of Cholecystectomy: An Observational Prospective Study
by Cristina Vila Zárate, Candelaria Martín González, Ruimán José González Álvarez, Iván Soto Darias, Beatriz Díaz Pérez, Pedro Abreu González, Vicente Medina Arana and Antonio Martínez Riera
Pathophysiology 2022, 29(4), 583-594; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology29040045 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
Cytokines are expressed by various cells after several stimuli such as surgical tissue damage, producing a systemic inflammatory response (SIR). C-reactive protein (CRP) is used extensively in clinical practice after operative injury, but proinflammatory cytokines, iron status, albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio and hemoglobin, [...] Read more.
Cytokines are expressed by various cells after several stimuli such as surgical tissue damage, producing a systemic inflammatory response (SIR). C-reactive protein (CRP) is used extensively in clinical practice after operative injury, but proinflammatory cytokines, iron status, albumin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (N/L) ratio and hemoglobin, as acute phase reactants, have been poorly documented. This study aims to show how they behave after surgery, comparing laparoscopic (LC) versus open cholecystectomy (OC). In total, 55 patients were included in a prospective non-randomized form to undergo a cholecystectomy: 8 patients OC (50% females) and 47 patients LC (68% females). Before (A1) and 24 h after surgery (A2), blood samples were taken for an ordinary analysis and IL6, IL8 and TNFα determination. There were no differences between LC and OC groups concerning age, CRP, IL6 and TNFα at day A1. In the LC group at day A2, CRP, IL6, IL8, TNF, ferritin, leukocytes and N/L ratio increased; hemoglobin, lymphocytes, prothrombin and albumin decreased (p < 0.05). In the OC group at day A2, only IL6 (p < 0,07), ferritin, leukocytes, N/L ratio and CRP (p < 0.05) increased; serum iron, hemoglobin, lymphocytes and albumin (p < 0.05) decreased. At day A2, OC vs. LC group, higher values were observed in IL6, ferritin and CRP (p ≤ 0.05), and lesser values were observed in serum iron and prothrombin (p < 0.05). In conclusion, classic markers of inflammation are altered after surgery, in a milder way in laparoscopic surgery. Ferritin can be used as an inflammatory marker, as has been described in COVID-19 infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiology of Iron Metabolism)
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