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Article

An Integrated Approach to Hygiene, Sanitation, and Storage Practices for Improving Microbial Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use: A Case Study in Makwane Village, South Africa

Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Arcadia Campus, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X 680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ivone Vaz-Moreira and Marcela França Dias
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126313
Received: 20 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 29 May 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Drinking Water Quality)
This study assessed the impact of sanitation practices, hygienic and storage conditions on the quality of drinking water treated at point-of-use in Makwane Village. Subsequent to implementation of low-cost Household Water Treatment Devices which are the biosand filter with zeolite-silver (BSZ-SICG) and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP) filters in Makwane village, a structured questionnaire was designed to collect the following information: age of caretakers, number of children under the age of five, water storage conditions, sanitation amenities, and hygiene practices. Water quality from the sources to household level was assessed using culture-based and molecular techniques. The results revealed a significant association between the presence of Escherichia coli in treated drinking water with the age group of caregivers and the number of children ofless than the age of five [OR (95% CI) = 8.4737 (0.147–3.3497), p = 0.0141923 and OR (95% CI) = 9.1667 (0.1848–3.0159); p = 0.0165830, respectively]. Moreover, significant association was noted between hygiene practices (washing of hands with/without soap) and water quality in storage containers [OR (95% CI) = 16.000 (0.6763–3.9495), p = 0.0000125]. These findings further prove that there is still a dire need for reconsidering hygiene education in rural areas as the health benefits of water treated at point of use (POU) coupled with safe-storage condition interventions might not be guaranteed without proper hygiene. The results further highlighted the importance of washing hands in improving microbial quality of drinking water, which is the key factor for fighting against infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: household water treatment systems; sanitation; hygiene household water treatment systems; sanitation; hygiene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moropeng, R.C.; Budeli, P.; Momba, M.N.B. An Integrated Approach to Hygiene, Sanitation, and Storage Practices for Improving Microbial Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use: A Case Study in Makwane Village, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126313

AMA Style

Moropeng RC, Budeli P, Momba MNB. An Integrated Approach to Hygiene, Sanitation, and Storage Practices for Improving Microbial Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use: A Case Study in Makwane Village, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126313

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moropeng, Resoketswe C., Phumudzo Budeli, and Maggy N.B. Momba 2021. "An Integrated Approach to Hygiene, Sanitation, and Storage Practices for Improving Microbial Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use: A Case Study in Makwane Village, South Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6313. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18126313

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