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Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity

Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 838;
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days)
Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; overweight; child nutrition; diet; breast feeding obesity; overweight; child nutrition; diet; breast feeding
MDPI and ACS Style

Mameli, C.; Mazzantini, S.; Zuccotti, G.V. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 838.

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