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Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(12), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16120494 (registering DOI)

Fatty Acid Composition and Thermotropic Behavior of Glycolipids and Other Membrane Lipids of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) Inhabiting Different Climatic Zones

1
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690091, Russia
2
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 2 December 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 7 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycoconjugates: Trends and Perspectives)
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Abstract

Increasing global temperatures are expected to increase the risk of extinction of various species due to acceleration in the pace of shifting climate zones. Nevertheless, there is no information on the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids that enable the adaptation of the algae to different climatic zones. The present work aimed to compare fatty acid composition and thermal transitions of membrane lipids from green macroalgae Ulva lactuca harvested in the Sea of Japan and the Adriatic Sea in summer. U. lactuca inhabiting the Adriatic Sea had bleached parts of thalli which were completely devoid of chloroplast glycolipids. The adaptation to a warmer climatic zone was also accompanied by a significant decrease in the ratio between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of membrane lipids, especially in bleached thalli. Hence, bleaching of algae is probably associated with the significant decrease of the UFA/SFA ratio in glycolipids. The decreasing ratio of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was observed in extra-plastidial lipids and only in the major glycolipid, non-lamellar monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. The opposite thermotropic behavior of non-lamellar and lamellar glycolipids can contribute to maintenance of the highly dynamic structure of thylakoid membranes of algae in response to the increasing temperatures of climatic zones.
Keywords: glycolipids; phospholipids; betaine lipid; fatty acids; differential scanning calorimetry; thermal adaptation glycolipids; phospholipids; betaine lipid; fatty acids; differential scanning calorimetry; thermal adaptation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Kostetsky, E.; Chopenko, N.; Barkina, M.; Velansky, P.; Sanina, N. Fatty Acid Composition and Thermotropic Behavior of Glycolipids and Other Membrane Lipids of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) Inhabiting Different Climatic Zones. Mar. Drugs 2018, 16, 494.

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