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Open AccessReview

Sugar-Lowering Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome—Review of Classical and New Compounds: Part-I

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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Endocrinology, Hospital São João, Prof. Alameda Hernâni Monteiro, 4200 – 319 Porto, Portugal
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Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, University of Barcelona, Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IN2UB), 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Laboratory of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine (LNMED), Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Aracaju 49010-390, Brazil
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University of Tiradentes (UNIT), Industrial Biotechnology Program, Av. Murilo Dantas 300, Aracaju 49032-490, Brazil
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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Cheruvandoor Campus, Ettumanoor, Kerala 686631, India
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Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano, 49-80131 Naples, Italy
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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra (FFUC), Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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CIBIT—Coimbra Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Translational Research, University of Coimbra, 3 000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
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Department of Biology and Environment, University of Trás-os Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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Centre for Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB-UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5001-801 Vila Real, Portugal
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CEB—Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph12040152
Received: 5 September 2019 / Revised: 6 October 2019 / Accepted: 8 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Old Pharmaceuticals with New Applications)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia together with disturbances in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fat, which in general results from an insulin availability and need imbalance. In a great number of patients, marketed anti-glycemic agents have shown poor effectiveness in maintaining a long-term glycemic control, thus being associated with severe adverse effects and leading to an emerging interest in natural compounds (e.g., essential oils and other secondary plant metabolites, namely, flavonoid-rich compounds) as a novel approach for prevention, management and/or treatment of either non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (T2DM, type 2 DM) and/or Metabolic Syndrome (MS). In this review, some of these promising glucose-lowering agents will be comprehensively discussed.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; metabolic syndrome; glucose-lowering agents; sugar-lowering oils; phytotherapy diabetes mellitus; metabolic syndrome; glucose-lowering agents; sugar-lowering oils; phytotherapy
MDPI and ACS Style

Vieira, R.; Souto, S.B.; Sánchez-López, E.; Machado, A.L.; Severino, P.; Jose, S.; Santini, A.; Fortuna, A.; García, M.L.; Silva, A.M.; Souto, E.B. Sugar-Lowering Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome—Review of Classical and New Compounds: Part-I. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 152.

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