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Open AccessConcept Paper

Methylxanthines: Potential Therapeutic Agents for Glioblastoma

PECEM, Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of México, México City 04510, Mexico
Neuroimmunology and Neuro-oncology Unit, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, México City 14269, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12(3), 130;
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 24 August 2019 / Accepted: 1 September 2019 / Published: 7 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Old Pharmaceuticals with New Applications)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Currently, treatment is ineffective and the median overall survival is 20.9 months. The poor prognosis of GBM is a consequence of several altered signaling pathways that favor the proliferation and survival of neoplastic cells. One of these pathways is the deregulation of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). These enzymes participate in the development of GBM and may have value as therapeutic targets to treat GBM. Methylxanthines (MXTs) such as caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine are PDE inhibitors and constitute a promising therapeutic anti-cancer agent against GBM. MTXs also regulate various cell processes such as proliferation, migration, cell death, and differentiation; these processes are related to cancer progression, making MXTs potential therapeutic agents in GBM. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain tumors; natural alkaloids; drug repositioning brain tumors; natural alkaloids; drug repositioning
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Pérez-Pérez, D.; Reyes-Vidal, I.; Chávez-Cortez, E.G.; Sotelo, J.; Magaña-Maldonado, R. Methylxanthines: Potential Therapeutic Agents for Glioblastoma. Pharmaceuticals 2019, 12, 130.

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