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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

An 8-Tap CMOS Lock-In Pixel Image Sensor for Short-Pulse Time-of-Flight Measurements

1
Graduate School of Medical Photonics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011, Japan
2
Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011, Japan
3
Brookman Technology, Inc., Hamamatsu 430-0936, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sensors 2020, 20(4), 1040; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20041040
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 11 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
An 8-tap CMOS lock-in pixel image sensor that has seven carrier-capturing and a draining time window was developed for short-pulse time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. The proposed pixel for the short-pulse TOF measurements has seven consecutive time-gating windows, each of which has the width of 6 ns, which is advantageous for high-resolution range imaging, particularly for relatively longer distances (>5 m) and under high ambient light operations. In order to enhance the depth resolution, a technique for the depth-adaptive time-gating-number assignment (DATA) for the short-pulse TOF measurement is proposed. A prototype of the 8-tap CMOS lock-in pixel image sensor is implemented with a 1POLY 4METAL 0.11-μm CIS process. The maximum non-linearity error of 1.56%FS for the range of 1–6.4 m and the depth resolution of 6.4 mm was obtained at 6.2 m using the DATA technique.
Keywords: CMOS image sensor (CIS); lock-in pixel; short-pulse; time-of-flight (TOF); multi tap; indirect TOF; depth sensing CMOS image sensor (CIS); lock-in pixel; short-pulse; time-of-flight (TOF); multi tap; indirect TOF; depth sensing
MDPI and ACS Style

Shirakawa, Y.; Yasutomi, K.; Kagawa, K.; Aoyama, S.; Kawahito, S. An 8-Tap CMOS Lock-In Pixel Image Sensor for Short-Pulse Time-of-Flight Measurements. Sensors 2020, 20, 1040.

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