Nowadays, several neurological disorders and neurocrine tumours are associated with dopamine (DA) concentrations in various biological fluids. Highly accurate and ultrasensitive detection of DA levels in different biological samples in real-time can change and improve the quality of a patient’s life in addition to reducing the treatment cost. Therefore, the design and development of diagnostic tool for in vivo and in vitro monitoring of DA is of considerable clinical and pharmacological importance. In recent decades, a large number of techniques have been established for DA detection, including chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, spectroscopic approaches, and electrochemical (EC) methods. These methods are effective, but most of them still have some drawbacks such as consuming time, effort, and money. Added to that, sometimes they need complex procedures to obtain good sensitivity and suffer from low selectivity due to interference from other biological species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). Advanced materials can offer remarkable opportunities to overcome drawbacks in conventional DA sensors. This review aims to explain challenges related to DA detection using different techniques, and to summarize and highlight recent advancements in materials used and approaches applied for several sensor surface modification for the monitoring of DA. Also, it focuses on the analytical features of the EC and optical-based sensing techniques available.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited