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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 2819; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18092819

Internet of Bikes: A DTN Protocol with Data Aggregation for Urban Data Collection

1
Telecommunications Department, University of Lyon, INSA Lyon, Inria, CITI F-69621 Villeurbanne, France
2
NOCCS Laboratory Higher Institute of Computer Science and Communication Technologies, ISITCom, University of Sousse Sahloul, Sousse 4054, Tunisia
3
NOCCS Laboratory, National Engineering School, ENISO, University of Sousse, Sousse 4054, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This paper is an extended version of “IoB-DTN: A lightweight DTN protocol for mobile IoT Applications to smart bike sharing systems” published in the Proceedings of the 2018 10thWireless Days (WD), Dubai, UAE, 3–5 April 2018; “A Comparative Evaluation of the Performance of the multi-hop IoB-DTN routing protocol” published in the Proceedings of the 17th AdHoc-Now 2018, Saint Malo, France, 5–7 September 2018.
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Internet of Things)

Abstract

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are an essential part of the global world. They play a substantial role for facing many issues such as traffic jams, high accident rates, unhealthy lifestyles, air pollution, etc. Public bike sharing system is one part of ITS and can be used to collect data from mobiles devices. In this paper, we propose an efficient, “Internet of Bikes”, IoB-DTN routing protocol based on data aggregation which applies the Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) paradigm to Internet of Things (IoT) applications running data collection on urban bike sharing system based sensor network. We propose and evaluate three variants of IoB-DTN: IoB based on spatial aggregation (IoB-SA), IoB based on temporal aggregation (IoB-TA) and IoB based on spatiotemporal aggregation (IoB-STA). The simulation results show that the three variants offer the best performances regarding several metrics, comparing to IoB-DTN without aggregation and the low-power long-range technology, LoRa type. In an urban application, the choice of the type of which variant of IoB should be used depends on the sensed values. View Full-Text
Keywords: internet of bikes; smart cities; internet of things; delay tolerant networks; wireless sensor networks; data aggregation; data collection; low-power long-range technology; LoRa/LoRaWAN internet of bikes; smart cities; internet of things; delay tolerant networks; wireless sensor networks; data aggregation; data collection; low-power long-range technology; LoRa/LoRaWAN
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zguira, Y.; Rivano, H.; Meddeb, A. Internet of Bikes: A DTN Protocol with Data Aggregation for Urban Data Collection. Sensors 2018, 18, 2819.

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