Next Article in Journal
Assessing Spatial and Temporal Trends in a Mediterranean Fish Assemblage Structure
Previous Article in Journal
The Diversity of Culture-Dependent Gram-Negative Rhizobacteria Associated with Manihot esculenta Crantz Plants Subjected to Water-Deficit Stress
Previous Article in Special Issue
Soil Nematode Communities in Managed and Natural Temperate Forest
Article

Seeding Resilient Restoration: An Indicator System for the Analysis of Tree Seed Systems

1
Bioversity International, Lima 12175, Peru
2
Dipartimento di Scienze per l’Economia e l’Impresa, University of Florence, 50121 Firenze, Italy
3
World Agroforestry (ICRAF), Lima 12175, Peru
4
School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Douglas, QLD 4811, Australia
5
World Resources Institute (WRI), Washington, DC 20002, USA
6
Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos, Alexander von Humboldt, Bogotá #15-09, Colombia
7
Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Cartago, Turrialba 30501, Costa Rica
8
Instituto Nacional de Bosques, Ciudad de Guatemala Zona 13, Guatemala
9
INFOR, Instituto Forestal, Fundo Teja Norte s/n, Valdivia 091000, Chile
10
Instituto de Bosques y Sociedad, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 091000, Chile
11
National Institute for Agricultural Technology (INTA), Bariloche 8400, Argentina
12
Corporación Nacional de Investigación y Fomento Forestal (CONIF), Bogotá #11-54, Colombia
13
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional Agraria, Lima 12175, Peru
14
Instituto de Investigaciones sobre los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo (INIRENA-UMSNH), Morelia 58337, Mexico
15
Division of Forest, Nature and Landscape, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
16
Bioversity International, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
17
Bioversity International, 00054 Rome, Italy
18
Center for Environmental Policy, Imperial College of London, London SW7 2BX, UK
19
Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Ecosystem Management, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
20
Bioversity International, Yaoundé P.O. Box 2008, Cameroon
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Orsolya Valkó
Diversity 2021, 13(8), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080367
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 30 July 2021 / Accepted: 2 August 2021 / Published: 9 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Promoting Biodiversity in Forest and Landscape Restoration)
Achieving multi-million-hectare commitments from countries around the world to restore degraded lands in resilient and sustainable ways requires, among other things, huge volumes of tree planting material. Seed systems encompassing all forest reproductive material (e.g., seeds, cuttings, stakes, and wildings), are key to ensuring that sufficient planting material with a diverse range of suitable species, adapted to local conditions and capable of persisting under a changing climate, is available for restoration projects. The ideal structure of a seed system integrates five components: seed selection and innovation, seed harvesting and production, market access, supply and demand, quality control, and an enabling environment. We propose 15 indicators to evaluate these key components and trial them by assessing national seed systems in 7 Latin American countries. We conclude that the indicators enable a straightforward assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of national seed systems, thus assisting governments to identify key areas for improvement and opportunities for horizontal learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: Argentina; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Mexico; Peru; diversity; climate change; seed system; forest genetic resources Argentina; Chile; Colombia; Costa Rica; Guatemala; Mexico; Peru; diversity; climate change; seed system; forest genetic resources
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Atkinson, R.J.; Thomas, E.; Roscioli, F.; Cornelius, J.P.; Zamora-Cristales, R.; Franco Chuaire, M.; Alcázar, C.; Mesén, F.; Lopez, H.; Ipinza, R.; Donoso, P.J.; Gallo, L.; Nieto, V.; Ugarte, J.; Sáenz-Romero, C.; Fremout, T.; Jalonen, R.; Gaisberger, H.; Vinceti, B.; Valette, M.; Bosshard, E.; Ekué, M.; Wiederkehr Guerra, G.; Kettle, C. Seeding Resilient Restoration: An Indicator System for the Analysis of Tree Seed Systems. Diversity 2021, 13, 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080367

AMA Style

Atkinson RJ, Thomas E, Roscioli F, Cornelius JP, Zamora-Cristales R, Franco Chuaire M, Alcázar C, Mesén F, Lopez H, Ipinza R, Donoso PJ, Gallo L, Nieto V, Ugarte J, Sáenz-Romero C, Fremout T, Jalonen R, Gaisberger H, Vinceti B, Valette M, Bosshard E, Ekué M, Wiederkehr Guerra G, Kettle C. Seeding Resilient Restoration: An Indicator System for the Analysis of Tree Seed Systems. Diversity. 2021; 13(8):367. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080367

Chicago/Turabian Style

Atkinson, Rachel J., Evert Thomas, Federico Roscioli, Jonathan P. Cornelius, Rene Zamora-Cristales, Maria Franco Chuaire, Carolina Alcázar, Francisco Mesén, Hariet Lopez, Roberto Ipinza, Pablo J. Donoso, Leonardo Gallo, Victor Nieto, Julio Ugarte, Cuauhtémoc Sáenz-Romero, Tobias Fremout, Riina Jalonen, Hannes Gaisberger, Barbara Vinceti, Michel Valette, Ennia Bosshard, Marius Ekué, Gabriela Wiederkehr Guerra, and Chris Kettle. 2021. "Seeding Resilient Restoration: An Indicator System for the Analysis of Tree Seed Systems" Diversity 13, no. 8: 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13080367

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop