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Comparative Genomics of Eight Fusarium graminearum Strains with Contrasting Aggressiveness Reveals an Expanded Open Pangenome and Extended Effector Content Signatures

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Diversité, Ecophysiologie des Céréales, Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, UMR 1095 Génétique, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
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Molekulare Phytopathologie, Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften und Mikrobiologie, Universität Hamburg, 22609 Hamburg, Germany
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Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
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Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, St. Augustine, FL 32080, USA
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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel Simões
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(12), 6257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126257
Received: 7 May 2021 / Revised: 2 June 2021 / Accepted: 7 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Microbiology)
Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small-grain cereals, demonstrates remarkably variable levels of aggressiveness in its host, producing different infection dynamics and contrasted symptom severity. While the secreted proteins, including effectors, are thought to be one of the essential components of aggressiveness, our knowledge of the intra-species genomic diversity of F. graminearum is still limited. In this work, we sequenced eight European F. graminearum strains of contrasting aggressiveness to characterize their respective genome structure, their gene content and to delineate their specificities. By combining the available sequences of 12 other F. graminearum strains, we outlined a reference pangenome that expands the repertoire of the known genes in the reference PH-1 genome by 32%, including nearly 21,000 non-redundant sequences and gathering a common base of 9250 conserved core-genes. More than 1000 genes with high non-synonymous mutation rates may be under diverse selection, especially regarding the trichothecene biosynthesis gene cluster. About 900 secreted protein clusters (SPCs) have been described. Mostly localized in the fast sub-genome of F. graminearum supposed to evolve rapidly to promote adaptation and rapid responses to the host’s infection, these SPCs gather a range of putative proteinaceous effectors systematically found in the core secretome, with the chloroplast and the plant nucleus as the main predicted targets in the host cell. This work describes new knowledge on the intra-species diversity in F. graminearum and emphasizes putative determinants of aggressiveness, providing a wealth of new candidate genes potentially involved in the Fusarium head blight disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium head blight; pangenome; secreted protein clusters; proteinaceous effectors; aggressiveness; intra-species genomic diversity Fusarium graminearum; Fusarium head blight; pangenome; secreted protein clusters; proteinaceous effectors; aggressiveness; intra-species genomic diversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alouane, T.; Rimbert, H.; Bormann, J.; González-Montiel, G.A.; Loesgen, S.; Schäfer, W.; Freitag, M.; Langin, T.; Bonhomme, L. Comparative Genomics of Eight Fusarium graminearum Strains with Contrasting Aggressiveness Reveals an Expanded Open Pangenome and Extended Effector Content Signatures. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 6257. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126257

AMA Style

Alouane T, Rimbert H, Bormann J, González-Montiel GA, Loesgen S, Schäfer W, Freitag M, Langin T, Bonhomme L. Comparative Genomics of Eight Fusarium graminearum Strains with Contrasting Aggressiveness Reveals an Expanded Open Pangenome and Extended Effector Content Signatures. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(12):6257. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126257

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alouane, Tarek, Hélène Rimbert, Jörg Bormann, Gisela A. González-Montiel, Sandra Loesgen, Wilhelm Schäfer, Michael Freitag, Thierry Langin, and Ludovic Bonhomme. 2021. "Comparative Genomics of Eight Fusarium graminearum Strains with Contrasting Aggressiveness Reveals an Expanded Open Pangenome and Extended Effector Content Signatures" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 12: 6257. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22126257

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