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Open AccessArticle

Synergistic Combinations of Curcumin, Sulforaphane, and Dihydrocaffeic Acid against Human Colon Cancer Cells

1
Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey, NL C.P. 64849, Mexico
2
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2133, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093108
Received: 12 April 2020 / Revised: 26 April 2020 / Accepted: 26 April 2020 / Published: 28 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolics and Polyphenols 2020)
Nutraceutical combinations that act synergistically could be a powerful solution against colon cancer, which is the second deadliest malignancy worldwide. In this study, curcumin (C), sulforaphane (S), and dihydrocaffeic acid (D, a chlorogenic acid metabolite) were evaluated, individually and in different combinations, over the viability of HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells, and compared against healthy fetal human colon (FHC) cells. The cytotoxic concentrations to kill 50%, 75%, and 90% of the cells (CC50, CC75, and CC90) were obtained, using the MTS assay. Synergistic, additive, and antagonistic effects were determined by using the combination index (CI) method. The 1:1 combination of S and D exerted synergistic effects against HT-29 at 90% cytotoxicity level (doses 90:90 µM), whereas CD(1:4) was synergistic at all cytotoxicity levels (9:36–34:136 µM) and CD(9:2) at 90% (108:24 µM) against Caco-2 cells. SD(1:1) was significantly more cytotoxic for cancer cells than healthy cells, while CD(1:4) and CD(9:2) were similarly or more cytotoxic for healthy cells. Therefore, the SD(1:1) combination was chosen as the best. A model explaining SD(1:1) synergy is proposed. SD(1:1) can be used as a basis to develop advanced food products for the prevention/co-treatment of colon cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutraceutical combinations; synergism; colon cancer; combination index; MTS assay nutraceutical combinations; synergism; colon cancer; combination index; MTS assay
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santana-Gálvez, J.; Villela-Castrejón, J.; Serna-Saldívar, S.O.; Cisneros-Zevallos, L.; Jacobo-Velázquez, D.A. Synergistic Combinations of Curcumin, Sulforaphane, and Dihydrocaffeic Acid against Human Colon Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3108.

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