Currently available pharmacological treatment of post-ischemia-reperfusion brain injury has limited effectiveness. This review provides an assessment of the current state of neurodegeneration treatment due to ischemia-reperfusion brain injury and focuses on the role of curcumin in the diet. The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of what was published about the benefits of curcumin influence on post-ischemic brain damage. Some data on the clinical benefits of curcumin treatment of post-ischemic brain in terms of clinical symptoms and adverse reactions have been reviewed. The data in this review contributes to a better understanding of the potential benefits of curcumin in the treatment of neurodegenerative changes after ischemia and informs scientists, clinicians, and patients, as well as their families and caregivers about the possibilities of such treatment. Due to the pleotropic properties of curcumin, including anti-amyloid, anti-tau protein hyperphosphorylation, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and neuroprotective action, as well as increasing neuronal lifespan and promoting neurogenesis, curcumin is a promising candidate for the treatment of post-ischemic neurodegeneration with misfolded proteins accumulation. In this way, it may gain interest as a potential therapy to prevent the development of neurodegenerative changes after cerebral ischemia. In addition, it is a safe substance and inexpensive, easily accessible, and can effectively penetrate the blood–brain barrier and neuronal membranes. In conclusion, the evidence available in a review of the literature on the therapeutic potential of curcumin provides helpful insight into the potential clinical utility of curcumin in the treatment of neurological neurodegenerative diseases with misfolded proteins. Therefore, curcumin may be a promising supplementary agent against development of neurodegeneration after brain ischemia in the future. Indeed, there is a rational scientific basis for the use of curcumin for the prophylaxis and treatment of post-ischemic neurodegeneration.
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