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New Insights into the Biological and Pharmaceutical Properties of Royal Jelly

1
Key Laboratory of Pollinating Insect Biology, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
2
Coimbra Chemistry Centre, (CQC, FCT Unit 313), Faculty of Sciences Technology, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, 3004-535 Coimbra, Portugal
3
Observatory of Drug-Herb Interactions, Sciences Health Campus, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
4
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Viale delle Piagge 2, 56124 Pisa, Italy
5
Interdepartmental Research Center “Nutraceuticals and Food for Health”, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020382
Received: 23 November 2019 / Revised: 22 December 2019 / Accepted: 6 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
Royal jelly (RJ) is a yellowish-white and acidic secretion of hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees used to feed young worker larvae during the first three days and the entire life of queen bees. RJ is one of the most appreciated and valued natural product which has been mainly used in traditional medicines, health foods, and cosmetics for a long time in different parts of the world. It is also the most studied bee product, aimed at unravelling its bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, and general tonic action against laboratory animals, microbial organisms, farm animals, and clinical trials. It is commonly used to supplement various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and Alzheimer’s disease. Here, we highlight the recent research advances on the main bioactive compounds of RJ, such as proteins, peptides, fatty acids, and phenolics, for a comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry, biological, and pharmaceutical responses to human health promotion and life benefits. This is potentially important to gain novel insight into the biological and pharmaceutical properties of RJ. View Full-Text
Keywords: royal jelly; bioactive compounds; functional properties; proteins; fatty acids; phenolics royal jelly; bioactive compounds; functional properties; proteins; fatty acids; phenolics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmad, S.; Campos, M.G.; Fratini, F.; Altaye, S.Z.; Li, J. New Insights into the Biological and Pharmaceutical Properties of Royal Jelly. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020382

AMA Style

Ahmad S, Campos MG, Fratini F, Altaye SZ, Li J. New Insights into the Biological and Pharmaceutical Properties of Royal Jelly. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(2):382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020382

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmad, Saboor; Campos, Maria G.; Fratini, Filippo; Altaye, Solomon Z.; Li, Jianke. 2020. "New Insights into the Biological and Pharmaceutical Properties of Royal Jelly" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 2: 382. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020382

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