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Review

Recent Advances in Lipopolysaccharide Recognition Systems

by 1,2,3 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Inflammation Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
2
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3
Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
4
Immunology Graduate Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020379
Received: 7 November 2019 / Revised: 3 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2020 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytoplasmic Sensors: Infection, Inflammation, and Immunity)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), commonly known as endotoxin, is ubiquitous and the most-studied pathogen-associated molecular pattern. A component of Gram-negative bacteria, extracellular LPS is sensed by our immune system via the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. Given that TLR4 is membrane bound, it recognizes LPS in the extracellular milieu or within endosomes. Whether additional sensors, if any, play a role in LPS recognition within the cytoplasm remained unknown until recently. The last decade has seen an unprecedented unfolding of TLR4-independent LPS sensing pathways. First, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been identified as non-TLR membrane-bound sensors of LPS and, second, caspase-4/5 (and caspase-11 in mice) have been established as the cytoplasmic sensors for LPS. Here in this review, we detail the brief history of LPS discovery, followed by the discovery of TLR4, TRP as the membrane-bound sensor, and our current understanding of caspase-4/5/11 as cytoplasmic sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: LPS; endotoxin; TLR4; TRPA1; TRPV4; caspase-11 LPS; endotoxin; TLR4; TRPA1; TRPV4; caspase-11
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazgaeen, L.; Gurung, P. Recent Advances in Lipopolysaccharide Recognition Systems. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020379

AMA Style

Mazgaeen L, Gurung P. Recent Advances in Lipopolysaccharide Recognition Systems. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(2):379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020379

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mazgaeen, Lalita; Gurung, Prajwal. 2020. "Recent Advances in Lipopolysaccharide Recognition Systems" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 2: 379. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020379

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