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The Role of the Epididymis and the Contribution of Epididymosomes to Mammalian Reproduction
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Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Embryo–Maternal Communication throughout Implantation Processes

1
Laboratory of Veterinary Pharmacology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
2
Department of Endocrine Pharmacology, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
3
School of Food Industrial Sciences, Miyagi University, Miyagi 982-0215, Japan
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8641, Japan
5
Research Institute of Agriculture, Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5523; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155523
Received: 20 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 1 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Reproduction)
In ruminants, the establishment of proper conceptus–endometrial communication is essential for conceptus implantation and subsequent successful placentation. Accumulated evidence supports the idea that extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in uterine lumen are involved in conceptus–endometrial interactions during the preimplantation period. EVs make up a new field of intercellular communicators, which transport a variety of bioactive molecules, including soluble and membrane-bound proteins, lipids, DNA, and RNAs. EVs thus regulate gene expression and elicit biological effects including increased cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion in recipient cells. Uterine EVs are interactive and coordinate with ovarian progesterone (P4), trophectoderm-derived interferon tau (IFNT) and/or prostaglandins (PGs) in the physiological or pathological microenvironment. In this review, we will focus on intrauterine EVs in embryo–maternal interactions during the early stage of pregnancy, especially the implantation period in ruminant ungulates. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; conceptus; endometrium; implantation; progesterone; interferon tau; pregnancy extracellular vesicles; conceptus; endometrium; implantation; progesterone; interferon tau; pregnancy
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Nakamura, K.; Kusama, K.; Suda, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Hori, M.; Imakawa, K. Emerging Role of Extracellular Vesicles in Embryo–Maternal Communication throughout Implantation Processes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5523.

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