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Role of microRNAs in Hemophilia and Thrombosis in Humans

1
OBRR/DBCD/LCH in the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
2
OTAT/DPPT/HB in the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(10), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103598
Received: 4 May 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 20 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs as Biomarkers and Effector Molecules of Thrombosis)
MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by targeting the untranslated regions of messenger RNA (mRNAs). These small RNAs have been shown to control cellular physiological processes including cell differentiation and proliferation. Dysregulation of miRNAs have been associated with numerous diseases. In the past few years miRNAs have emerged as potential biopharmaceuticals and the first miRNA-based therapies have entered clinical trials. Our recent studies suggest that miRNAs may also play an important role in the pathology of genetic diseases that are currently considered to be solely due to mutations in the coding sequence. For instance, among hemophilia A patients there exist a small subset, with normal wildtype genes; i.e., lacking in mutations in the coding and non-coding regions of the F8 gene. Similarly, in many patients with missense mutations in the F8 gene, the genetic defect does not fully explain the severity of the disease. Dysregulation of miRNAs that target mRNAs encoding coagulation factors have been shown to disturb gene expression. Alterations in protein levels involved in the coagulation cascade mediated by miRNAs could lead to bleeding disorders or thrombosis. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in hemophilia and thrombosis. Recognizing and understanding the functions of miRNAs by identifying their targets is important in identifying their roles in health and diseases. Successful basic research may result in the development and improvement of tools for diagnosis, risk evaluation or even new treatment strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: microRNAs (miRNAs); thrombosis; bleeding disorders; coagulation factors; hemophilia microRNAs (miRNAs); thrombosis; bleeding disorders; coagulation factors; hemophilia
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Jankowska, K.I.; Sauna, Z.E.; Atreya, C.D. Role of microRNAs in Hemophilia and Thrombosis in Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3598.

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