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The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction in Peripheral Blood Nerve Barrier: Molecular Mechanisms and Pathophysiological Implications

1
Interregional Research Center for Food Safety and Health (IRC-FSH), Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Campus Universitario di Germaneto, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
2
Nutramed Societa’ Consortile A Responsabilita’ Limitata (S.c.a.r.l.), Complesso Ninì Barbieri, Roccelletta di Borgia, 88021 Catanzaro, Italy
3
Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) San Raffaele, Via di Valcannuta 247, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123022
Received: 27 May 2019 / Revised: 14 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endothelial Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
The exchange of solutes between the blood and the nerve tissue is mediated by specific and high selective barriers in order to ensure the integrity of the different compartments of the nervous system. At peripheral level, this function is maintained by the Blood Nerve Barrier (BNB) that, in the presence, of specific stressor stimuli can be damaged causing the onset of neurodegenerative processes. An essential component of BNB is represented by the endothelial cells surrounding the sub-structures of peripheral nerves and increasing evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction can be considered a leading cause of the nerve degeneration. The purpose of this review is to highlight the main mechanisms involved in the impairment of endothelial cells in specific diseases associated with peripheral nerve damage, such as diabetic neuropathy, erectile dysfunction and inflammation of the sciatic nerve. View Full-Text
Keywords: Blood Nerve Barrier (BNB); nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase (NOS); endothelial dysfunction; diabetic neuropathy; neuropathic pain; peripheral nerve injury; erectile dysfunction Blood Nerve Barrier (BNB); nitric oxide; nitric oxide synthase (NOS); endothelial dysfunction; diabetic neuropathy; neuropathic pain; peripheral nerve injury; erectile dysfunction
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Maiuolo, J.; Gliozzi, M.; Musolino, V.; Carresi, C.; Nucera, S.; Macrì, R.; Scicchitano, M.; Bosco, F.; Scarano, F.; Ruga, S.; Zito, M.C.; Oppedisano, F.; Mollace, R.; Paone, S.; Palma, E.; Muscoli, C.; Mollace, V. The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction in Peripheral Blood Nerve Barrier: Molecular Mechanisms and Pathophysiological Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 3022.

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