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Y Chromosome, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: Is Inflammation the Answer?

Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2892;
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endothelial Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
It is now becomingly increasingly evident that the functions of the mammalian Y chromosome are not circumscribed to the induction of male sex. While animal studies have shown variations in the Y are strongly accountable for blood pressure (BP), this is yet to be confirmed in humans. We have recently shown modulation of adaptive immunity to be a significant mechanism underpinning Y-chromosome-dependent differences in BP in consomic strains. This is paralleled by studies in man showing Y chromosome haplogroup is a significant predictor for coronary artery disease through influencing pathways of immunity. Furthermore, recent studies in mice and humans have shown that Y chromosome lineage determines susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here we review the evidence in animals and humans that Y chromosome lineage influences hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk, with a novel focus on pathways of immunity as a significant pathway involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular dysfunction; sex differences; immune-mediated hypertension vascular dysfunction; sex differences; immune-mediated hypertension
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, S.I.; Andrews, K.L.; Jennings, G.L.; Sampson, A.K.; Chin-Dusting, J.P.F. Y Chromosome, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: Is Inflammation the Answer? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2892.

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