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Y Chromosome, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: Is Inflammation the Answer?

1
Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia
2
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 2892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20122892
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endothelial Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
It is now becomingly increasingly evident that the functions of the mammalian Y chromosome are not circumscribed to the induction of male sex. While animal studies have shown variations in the Y are strongly accountable for blood pressure (BP), this is yet to be confirmed in humans. We have recently shown modulation of adaptive immunity to be a significant mechanism underpinning Y-chromosome-dependent differences in BP in consomic strains. This is paralleled by studies in man showing Y chromosome haplogroup is a significant predictor for coronary artery disease through influencing pathways of immunity. Furthermore, recent studies in mice and humans have shown that Y chromosome lineage determines susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here we review the evidence in animals and humans that Y chromosome lineage influences hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk, with a novel focus on pathways of immunity as a significant pathway involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: vascular dysfunction; sex differences; immune-mediated hypertension vascular dysfunction; sex differences; immune-mediated hypertension
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, S.I.; Andrews, K.L.; Jennings, G.L.; Sampson, A.K.; Chin-Dusting, J.P.F. Y Chromosome, Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease: Is Inflammation the Answer? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2892.

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