Next Article in Journal
Interferon β-Mediated Protective Functions of Microglia in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity
Previous Article in Journal
Long-Term Changes in Cognition and Physiology after Low-Dose 16O Irradiation
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010189

AXIN1 in Plasma or Serum Is a Potential New Biomarker for Endometriosis

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
2
Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Clinical Research Centre, Lund University, Box 50332, 202 13 Malmö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 30 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
  |  
PDF [770 KB, uploaded 7 January 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Although endometriosis is considered an inflammatory disease, no reliable diagnostic biomarkers exist for use in clinical practice. The aim was to investigate the inflammatory profile in endometriosis using an exploratory approach of inflammation-related proteins. Patients with laparoscopy-verified endometriosis (N = 172), women with microscopic colitis (N = 50), healthy controls (N = 31), and age-matched controls from the general population (N = 100) were enrolled and questionnaires regarding socioeconomic factors, lifestyle habits, and medical history were completed. Sera from patients and healthy controls were analyzed for 92 inflammatory biomarkers using Proximity Extension Assay technology (PEA). Plasma AXIN1 levels were analyzed in patients with endometriosis and controls from the general population by ELISA. General linear model adjusted for age, Mann–Whitney U-test, and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for statistical calculations. Serum levels of AXIN1 and ST1A1 were increased in endometriosis compared with MC (p < 0.001) and healthy controls (p = 0.001), whereas CXCL9 levels were decreased. Plasma levels of AXIN1 were elevated in endometriosis compared with age-matched controls from the general population (30.0 (17.0–38.0) pg/mL vs. 19.5 (15.0–28.0) pg/mL, p < 0.001). PCA analysis identified four clusters of proteins, where one cluster differed between endometriosis and controls, with strong correlations for AXIN1 and ST1A1. Plasma/serum AXIN1 is an interesting biomarker to be further evaluated in endometriosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: AXIN1; endometriosis; inflammatory profile; ST1A1; gastrointestinal symptoms AXIN1; endometriosis; inflammatory profile; ST1A1; gastrointestinal symptoms
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ek, M.; Roth, B.; Engström, G.; Ohlsson, B. AXIN1 in Plasma or Serum Is a Potential New Biomarker for Endometriosis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 189.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top