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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010190

Interferon β-Mediated Protective Functions of Microglia in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

1
Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hospital Hygiene, University of Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
3
Cells in Motion, Cluster of Excellence, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
4
Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital Münster, 48149, Münster, Germany
5
Department of Neurology, University of Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2018 / Revised: 23 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 7 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Molecular Mechanisms in Multiple Sclerosis)
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Abstract

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to demyelination and axonal damage. It often affects young adults and can lead to neurological disability. Interferon β (IFNβ) preparations represent widely used treatment regimens for patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) with therapeutic efficacy in reducing disease progression and frequency of acute exacerbations. In mice, IFNβ therapy has been shown to ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS while genetic deletion of IFNβ or its receptor augments clinical severity of disease. However, the complex mechanism of action of IFNβ in CNS autoimmunity has not been fully elucidated. Here, we review our current understanding of the origin, phenotype, and function of microglia and CNS immigrating macrophages in the pathogenesis of MS and EAE. In addition, we highlight the emerging roles of microglia as IFNβ-producing cells and vice versa the impact of IFNβ on microglia in CNS autoimmunity. We finally discuss recent progress in unraveling the underlying molecular mechanisms of IFNβ-mediated effects in EAE. View Full-Text
Keywords: CNS autoimmunity; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; multiple sclerosis; microglia; type I IFN; IFNβ CNS autoimmunity; experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; multiple sclerosis; microglia; type I IFN; IFNβ
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Scheu, S.; Ali, S.; Mann-Nüttel, R.; Richter, L.; Arolt, V.; Dannlowski, U.; Kuhlmann, T.; Klotz, L.; Alferink, J. Interferon β-Mediated Protective Functions of Microglia in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 190.

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