Next Article in Journal
Study on Cardiotoxicity and Mechanism of “Fuzi” Extracts Based on Metabonomics
Previous Article in Journal
Pediococcus pentosaceus-Fermented Cordyceps militaris Inhibits Inflammatory Reactions and Alleviates Contact Dermatitis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Gene Therapy for Pancreatic Diseases: Current Status
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(11), 3505; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19113505

Emerging Role of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Pancreatic Cancer

1
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
2
Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC 27834, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell and Molecular Biology of Pancreatic Disorders)
Full-Text   |   PDF [224 KB, uploaded 7 November 2018]

Abstract

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with programmed cell death protein-1(PD-1)/programmed death ligand -1(PD-L1) antibodies has revolutionized the management of several cancers, especially non-small cell lung cancer, melanoma, urothelial, and renal cancer. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive cancers associated with high morbidity and mortality. Based on available data, it’s obvious that ICB has limited success in PDACs, which can be explained by the low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of these tumors. In this review article, we focus on PD-L1 expression and microsatellite instability (MSI) in PDAC, and their roles as prognostic and predictive markers. We also discuss data supporting combination therapies to augment cancer immunity cycle. Combining anti-PD-1/PD-L1 agents with other modalities such as vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiation could potentially overcome resistance patterns and increase immune responsiveness in PDAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic adenocarcinoma; programmed death ligand; microsatellite instability pancreatic adenocarcinoma; programmed death ligand; microsatellite instability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Macherla, S.; Laks, S.; Naqash, A.R.; Bulumulle, A.; Zervos, E.; Muzaffar, M. Emerging Role of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Pancreatic Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 3505.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top