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Open AccessArticle

Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Carbon-Coating Can Increase Its Biosafety: Evidences from Biochemical and Neurobehavioral Tests in Zebrafish

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
2
Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
3
Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
4
Department of Biological Science & Technology, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
5
Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, Pingtung 90007, Taiwan
6
Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Ian Terry
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092256
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 7 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Magnetic Materials)
Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have gained much attention in the field of biomedical engineering for therapeutic as well as diagnostic purposes. Carbon magnetic nanoparticles (C-MNPs) are a class of MNPs categorized as organic nanoparticles. C-MNPs have been under considerable interest in studying in various applications such as magnetic resonance imaging, photothermal therapy, and intracellular transportof drugs. Research work is still largely in progress for testing the efficacy of C-MNPs on the theranostics platform in cellular studies and animal models. In this study, we evaluated the neurobehavioral toxicity parameters on the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) at either low (1 ppm) or high (10 ppm) concentration level of C-MNPs over a period of two weeks by waterborne exposure. The physical properties of the synthesized C-MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Raman, and XRD spectrum characterization. Multiple behavior tests for the novel tank, mirror biting, predator avoidance, conspecific social interaction, shoaling, and analysis of biochemical markers were also conducted to elucidate the corresponding mechanism. Our data demonstrate the waterborne exposure of C-MNPs is less toxic than the uncoated MNPs since neither low nor high concentration C-MNPs elicit toxicity response in behavioral and biochemical tests in adult zebrafish. The approach combining biochemical and neurobehavioral approaches would be helpful for understanding C-MNPs association affecting the bioavailability, biosafety, interaction, and uptake of these C-MNPs in the living organism. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon magnetic nanoparticles; zebrafish; behavior analysis; neurotransmitters; ecotoxicity; phenomic analysis carbon magnetic nanoparticles; zebrafish; behavior analysis; neurotransmitters; ecotoxicity; phenomic analysis
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Malhotra, N.; Audira, G.; Chen, J.-R.; Siregar, P.; Hsu, H.-S.; Lee, J.-S.; Ger, T.-R.; Hsiao, C.-D. Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Carbon-Coating Can Increase Its Biosafety: Evidences from Biochemical and Neurobehavioral Tests in Zebrafish. Molecules 2020, 25, 2256.

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