Next Article in Journal
Surface Modification of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Carbon-Coating Can Increase Its Biosafety: Evidences from Biochemical and Neurobehavioral Tests in Zebrafish
Next Article in Special Issue
Antimicrobials from Venomous Animals: An Overview
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of Aroma Differences in Refined and Whole Grain Extruded Maize Puffs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Septum: Assessment of Bioactive Molecules and In Vitro Biological Effects
Open AccessArticle

Panax quinquefolium L. Ginsenosides from Hairy Root Cultures and Their Clones Exert Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Activity towards Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Caco-2

1
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Department, Medical University of Lodz, Muszyńskiego 1, 90-151 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
3
Institute of Molecular and Industrial Biotechnology, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 4/10, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marcello Locatelli, Simone Carradori and Andrei Mocan
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092262
Received: 9 April 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 7 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry II)
American ginseng, Panax quinquefolium (L.), is traditionally used in folk medicine. It exhibits a range of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Its main components are ginsenosides, also known as panaxosides or triterpene saponins. In order to obtain high yields of ginsenosides, different methods of controlled production are involved, i.e., with hairy root cultures. However, they are still employed under in vitro conditions. Our studies revealed that hairy root cultures subjected to an elicitation process can be considered as a potent source of ginsenosides. The present study examines the biological activity of ginseng hairy root cultures against the Caco-2 human adenocarcinoma cell line. Among our six different clones of P. quinquefolium hairy roots, extracts B and Be (treated with elicitor) were the strongest inhibitors of the cellular metabolic activity. While all extracts induced DNA damage, B and Be also generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner, which was correlated with the depletion of the mitochondrial membrane potential and induction of apoptosis. These findings indicate that further research concerning P. quinquefolium hairy root cultures should focus on the activity of rare ginsenosides and other biologically active compound profiles (i.e., phenolic compounds). View Full-Text
Keywords: Panax quinquefolium L.; hairy roots; ginsenosides; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; apoptosis; necrosis; mitochondrial membrane potential; ATP; Caco-2 Panax quinquefolium L.; hairy roots; ginsenosides; cytotoxicity; genotoxicity; apoptosis; necrosis; mitochondrial membrane potential; ATP; Caco-2
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kochan, E.; Nowak, A.; Zakłos-Szyda, M.; Szczuka, D.; Szymańska, G.; Motyl, I. Panax quinquefolium L. Ginsenosides from Hairy Root Cultures and Their Clones Exert Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Activity towards Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Caco-2. Molecules 2020, 25, 2262.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop