Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Septum: Assessment of Bioactive Molecules and In Vitro Biological Effects
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Victor Babes Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Victor Babes Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Victor Babes Street, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Food Science, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Research Center for Functional Genomics, Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Marinescu Street, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
MEDFUTURE—Research Center for Advanced Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 23 Marinescu Street, 400337 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Department of Functional Genomics and Experimental Pathology, The Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta”, 34-36 Republicii Street, 400015 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Riccardo Petrelli
Molecules 2020, 25(9), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092187
Received: 13 April 2020 / Revised: 3 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Pharmacology and Medicinal Chemistry II)
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) septum represents an interesting bioactive compound source by-product. In our study, a rich phenolic walnut septum extract, previously selected, was further examined. The tocopherol content determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed higher amounts of α-tocopherol compared to γ- and δ-tocopherols. Moreover, several biological activities were investigated. The in vitro inhibiting assessment against acetylcholinesterase, α-glucosidase, or lipase attested a real management potential in diabetes or obesity. The extract demonstrated very strong antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis. It also revealed moderate (36.08%) and strong (43.27%) antimutagenic inhibitory effects against TA 98 and TA 100 strains. The cytotoxicity of the extract was assessed on cancerous (A549, T47D-KBluc, MCF-7) and normal (human gingival fibroblasts (HGF)) cell lines. Flow cytometry measurements confirmed the cytotoxicity of the extract in the cancerous cell lines. Additionally, the extract demonstrated antioxidant activity on all four cell types, as well as anti-inflammatory activity by lowering the inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β)) evaluated in HGF cells. To the best of our knowledge, most of the cellular model analyses were performed for the first time in this matrix. The results prove that walnut septum may be a potential phytochemical source for pharmaceutical and food industry.