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Open AccessArticle

Chemical Diversity of Bastard Balm (Melittis melisophyllum L.) as Affected by Plant Development

Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences–SGGW, 166 Nowoursynowska Street, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
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Academic Editors: Federica Pellati, Laura Mercolini and Roccaldo Sardella
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2421; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102421
Received: 7 May 2020 / Revised: 16 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
The phytochemical diversity of Melittis melissophyllum was investigated in terms of seasonal changes and age of plants including plant organs diversity. The content of phenolics, namely: coumarin; 3,4-dihydroxycoumarin; o-coumaric acid 2-O-glucoside; verbascoside; apiin; luteolin-7-O-glucoside; and o-coumaric; p-coumaric; chlorogenic; caffeic; ferulic; cichoric acids, was determined using HPLC-DAD. Among these, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside, chlorogenic acid, and coumarin were the dominants. The highest content of flavonoids and phenolic acids was observed in 2-year-old plants, while coumarin in 4-year-old plants (272.06 mg 100 g–1 DW). When considering seasonal changes, the highest content of luteolin-7-O-glucoside was observed at the full flowering, whereas verbascoside and chlorogenic acid were observed at the seed-setting stage. Among plant organs, the content of coumarin and phenolic acids was the highest in leaves, whereas verbascoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were observed in flowers. The composition of essential oil was determined using GC-MS/GC-FID. In the essential oil from leaves, the dominant was 1-octen-3-ol, whilst from flowers, the dominant was α-pinene. View Full-Text
Keywords: phenolic compounds; essential oil; HPLC-DAD; GC-MS; developmental phase; age of plants; plant organs phenolic compounds; essential oil; HPLC-DAD; GC-MS; developmental phase; age of plants; plant organs
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Szymborska-Sandhu, I.; Przybył, J.L.; Kosakowska, O.; Bączek, K.; Węglarz, Z. Chemical Diversity of Bastard Balm (Melittis melisophyllum L.) as Affected by Plant Development. Molecules 2020, 25, 2421.

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