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Qualitative Phytochemical Fingerprint and Network Pharmacology Investigation of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Extracts

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Open AccessArticle

Phytochemical Analysis, Network Pharmacology and in Silico Investigations on Anacamptis pyramidalis Tuber Extracts

1
Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
2
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
3
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit 230, Mauritius
4
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Campus, Konya 42130, Turkey
5
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas S/N, E-23071 Jaén, Spain
6
Chemistry Department, College of Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, 44001 Erbil, Iraq
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, 34668 Istanbul, Turkey
8
Department of Pharmacy, “G. d’Annunzio” University Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2020, 25(10), 2422; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25102422
Received: 16 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 22 May 2020
Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. forms part of the Orchidaceae family that is highly
valued for its horticultural as well as therapeutic benefits. The present study set out to investigate
the inhibitory activity of A. pyramidalis tubers against key biological targets for the management of
type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer disease, and skin hyperpigmentation. In addition, the antioxidant
potential of the extracts was also assessed using multiple methods. The detailed phytochemical
profiles of the extracts were determined using high‐performance liquid chromatography. Based on
qualitative phytochemical fingerprint, a network pharmacology analysis was conducted as well.
Parishin was identified from the water extract only, whereas gastrodin and caffeic acid derivatives
were present in the methanol extract. The methanol extract exhibited high inhibitory activity
against tyrosinase (69.69 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract), α‐amylase (15.76 mg acarbose
equivalent/g extract), and α‐glucosidase (20.07 mg acarbose equivalent/g extract). Similarly, the
methanol extract showed highest antioxidant potential (22.12, 44.23, 45.56, and 29.38 mg Trolox
equivalent/g extract, for 2,2‐diphenyl‐1‐picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2ʹ‐azino‐bis(3‐
ethylbenzothiazoline‐6‐sulfonic acid) (ABTS), CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC),
and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays, respectively). Finally, the results of
network pharmacology analysis, besides corroborating traditional uses of plant extracts in the
management of cold and flu, confirmed a direct involvement of identified phytochemicals in the
observed enzyme inhibitory effects, especially against tyrosinase, α‐amylase, and α‐glucosidase.
Furthermore, based on the results of both colorimetric assays and network pharmacology analysis related to the activity of A. pyramidalis extracts and identified phytocompounds on enzymes
involved in type 2 diabetes, a docking study was conducted in order to investigate the putative
interactions of oxo‐dihydroxy octadecenoic acid trihydroxy octadecenoic acid against aldose
reductase, peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor (PPAR)‐α, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)‐IV,
and α‐glucosidase. Docking analysis suggested the inhibitory activity of these compounds against
the aforementioned enzymes, with a better inhibitory profile shown by oxo‐dihydroxy
octadecenoic acid. Overall, the present findings supported the rationale for the use of A.
pyramidalis as source of bioactive metabolites and highlight, today more than ever, for the strong
necessity of linkage strategy between wild resource valorization and conservation policy.
Keywords: Anacamptis pyramidalis; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; phytochemical fingerprint; network pharmacology; docking study Anacamptis pyramidalis; antioxidant; enzyme inhibition; phytochemical fingerprint; network pharmacology; docking study
MDPI and ACS Style

Mahomoodally, M.F.; Picot-Allain, M.C.N.; Zengin, G.; Llorent-Martínez, E.J.; Abdullah, H.H.; Ak, G.; Senkardes, I.; Chiavaroli, A.; Menghini, L.; Recinella, L.; Brunetti, L.; Leone, S.; Orlando, G.; Ferrante, C. Phytochemical Analysis, Network Pharmacology and in Silico Investigations on Anacamptis pyramidalis Tuber Extracts. Molecules 2020, 25, 2422.

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