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Terrestrial Microorganisms: Cell Factories of Bioactive Molecules with Skin Protecting Applications

1
Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15771 Athens, Greece
2
Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (ICSN), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
3
Fundación MEDINA, 18016 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Cell Biology and Biophysics, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Molecules 2019, 24(9), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24091836
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 13 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Natural Products)
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Abstract

It is well known that terrestrial environments host an immense microbial biodiversity. Exposed to different types of stress, such as UV radiation, temperature fluctuations, water availability and the inter- / intra-specific competition for resources, terrestrial microorganisms have been evolved to produce a large spectrum of bioactive molecules. Bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi and algae have shown a high potential of producing biomolecules for pharmaceutical or other industrial purposes as they combine a sustainable, relatively low-cost and fast-production process. Herein, we provide an overview of the different bioactive molecules produced by terrestrial microorganisms with skin protecting applications. The high content in polyphenolic and carotenoid compounds produced by several strains, as well as the presence of exopolysaccharides, melanins, indole and pyrrole derivatives, mycosporines, carboxylic acids and other molecules, are discussed in the context of their antioxidant, photo-protective and skin-whitening activity. Relevant biotechnological tools developed for the enhanced production of high added value natural products, as well as the protecting effect of some antioxidant, hydrolytic and degrading enzymes are also discussed. Furthermore, we describe classes of microbial compounds that are used or have the potential to be used as antimicrobials, moisturizers, biosurfactants, pigments, flavorings and fragrances. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial microorganisms; antioxidant; photo-protective; skin-whitening; cosmetics terrestrial microorganisms; antioxidant; photo-protective; skin-whitening; cosmetics
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Peyrat, L.-A.; Tsafantakis, N.; Georgousaki, K.; Ouazzani, J.; Genilloud, O.; Trougakos, I.P.; Fokialakis, N. Terrestrial Microorganisms: Cell Factories of Bioactive Molecules with Skin Protecting Applications. Molecules 2019, 24, 1836.

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