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Open AccessArticle

Changes in the Volatile Components of Candied Kumquats in Different Processing Methodologies with Headspace–Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry

by 1,2,3, 3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3, 1,2,3,* and 1,2,3,*
1
Longping Branch Graduate School, Hunan University, Changsha 410125, China
2
Provincial Key Laboratory for Fruits and Vegetables Storage Processing and Quality Safety, Agricultural Product Processing Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
3
College of Food Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Derek J. McPhee, Michael C. Qian and Yanping L. Qian
Molecules 2019, 24(17), 3053; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173053
Received: 15 July 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 20 August 2019 / Published: 22 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Instrumental Analysis for Volatile Odorants and Flavours)
The effects of two different processing methods on the volatile components of candied kumquats were investigated via headspace–gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry (HS–GC–IMS). The characteristic volatile fingerprints of fresh kumquats (FKs), vacuum sugaring osmosis combined with hot-air drying kumquats (VS-ADKs), and atmospheric pressure sugaring osmosis combined with hot-air drying kumquats (AS-ADKs) were established using 3D topographic plots. From the fingerprints, 40 signal peaks for 22 compounds were confirmed and quantified in all types of kumquats, namely, two terpenes, four esters, seven aldehydes, three ketones, and six alcohols. 3-Pentanone was identified as the major component of FKs; followed by 1-hexanol and the Z-3-hexen-1-ol dimer. The hexanal dimer, 2-hexen-1-ol, and the ethyl acetate dimer were the major markers of VS-ADKs. Benzaldehyde and furfurol were the prominent constituent parts of AS-ADKs. Compared with that in FKs, the pentanal and dimethyl ketone contents of VS-ADKs and AS-ADKs exhibited a dramatic increase (p < 0.05). By contrast, the change in ethanol dimer tended to decrease (p < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly showed that the samples, which were distributed in a separate space could be well-distinguished. Furthermore, the similarity of different processed kumquats and their corresponding volatile components was demonstrated via heat map clustering analysis. The results confirmed the potential of HS–GC–IMS-based approaches to evaluate processed kumquats with various volatile profiles. View Full-Text
Keywords: preserved fruit processing; candied kumquats; sugar osmosis; hot-air drying; volatile components; HS–GC–IMS; PCA preserved fruit processing; candied kumquats; sugar osmosis; hot-air drying; volatile components; HS–GC–IMS; PCA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, X.; Wang, R.; Guo, J.; Ge, K.; Li, G.; Fu, F.; Ding, S.; Shan, Y. Changes in the Volatile Components of Candied Kumquats in Different Processing Methodologies with Headspace–Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Molecules 2019, 24, 3053. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173053

AMA Style

Hu X, Wang R, Guo J, Ge K, Li G, Fu F, Ding S, Shan Y. Changes in the Volatile Components of Candied Kumquats in Different Processing Methodologies with Headspace–Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Molecules. 2019; 24(17):3053. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hu, Xiao; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Jiajing; Ge, Keda; Li, Gaoyang; Fu, Fuhua; Ding, Shenghua; Shan, Yang. 2019. "Changes in the Volatile Components of Candied Kumquats in Different Processing Methodologies with Headspace–Gas Chromatography–Ion Mobility Spectrometry" Molecules 24, no. 17: 3053. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24173053

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