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Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash Essential Oil Extracted by Carbon Dioxide Expanded Ethanol

1
Department of Biotechnology, College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
2
Department of Biotechnology, Xingzhi College, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesca Mancianti
Molecules 2019, 24(10), 1897; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24101897 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
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Abstract

In the present study, the composition of essential oil isolated from the roots of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash, harvested in China, was studied, along with the bioactivities. A green novel method using an eco-friendly solvent, CO2-pressurized ethanol, or carbon dioxide expanded ethanol (CXE) was employed to isolate the essential oil from the root of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash with the purpose of replacing the traditional method and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). After investigating the major operating factors of CXE, the optimal conditions were obtained as follows: 8.4 MPa, 50 °C, 5 mL/min ethanol, and 0.22 mole fraction of CO2, presenting an extraction oil that ranged from 5.12% to 7.42%, higher than that of hydrodistillation (HD) or indirect vapor distillation (IVD). The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that three major components, including valerenol (18.48%), valerenal (10.21%), and β-Cadinene (6.23%), are found in CXE oil, while a total of 23 components were identified, 48 components less than using conventional hydrodistillation. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activities of root oils were evaluated by the microdilution method, which showed that CXE oil exhibited an ability against Gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus, approximately equivalent to traditional samples. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging assay demonstrated that the antioxidant abilities of root oils were sorted in the descending order: IVD > HD > CXE > SFE. In conclusion, after a comprehensive comparison with the conventional methods, the CXE-related technique might be a promising green manufacturing pattern for the production of quality vetiver oil, due to the modification of ethanol by the variable addition of non-polar compressible CO2, ultimately resulting in a prominent dissolving capability for the extraction of vetiver solutes. View Full-Text
Keywords: vetiver essential oil; CO2 expanded ethanol; hydrodistillation; chemical composition; antimicrobial activity; DPPH free radical scavenging assay vetiver essential oil; CO2 expanded ethanol; hydrodistillation; chemical composition; antimicrobial activity; DPPH free radical scavenging assay
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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David, A.; Wang, F.; Sun, X.; Li, H.; Lin, J.; Li, P.; Deng, G. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash Essential Oil Extracted by Carbon Dioxide Expanded Ethanol. Molecules 2019, 24, 1897.

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